Month: June 2017

Site Diary: Summer Week 8

With only 4 weeks left of the 2016 summer season of Archaeology Live! it was full steam ahead at All Saints. Our Week 8 trainees made great progress on a number of burials and medieval to post-medieval deposits. They also had a stellar week for finds during several of our washing and bagging sessions, and we have now officially found gold*!

*Leaf

Yes, that’s right, on one of our finds bagging sessions a keen-eyed trainee noticed something different about a fragment of pot. Despite the sherd looking like so many other pieces we’ve found at All Saints, this sherd, upon closer inspection, had glinting little pieces of gold leaf on it!

A pottery sherd with gold leaf - fancy!

A pottery sherd with gold leaf – fancy!

However the streak of good luck didn’t stop there, as our other finds processing (washing and bagging) sessions revealed even more stellar finds. These included 2 different styles of Nene Valley cups – a type of Roman pottery, as well as a medieval flagon, a couple of possible brooches, a piece of pottery with residue still stuck on the inside, and a possible medieval quern stone! One of our Roman wares even came with a horse’s bottom on it! It would have originally formed part of a hunting scene, which was a common motif on several types of Roman pottery vessels.

A horse bottom occupies part of the hunting scene on this Roman Nene Valley cup.

A horse bottom occupies part of the hunting scene on this Roman Nene Valley cup.

 

Daniel looking very pleased with his copper alloy object - possibly a brooch.

Daniel looking very pleased with his copper alloy object – possibly a brooch.

A close up of Victoria's pottery sherd complete with residue!

A close up of  Victoria’s pottery sherd complete with residue!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finds processing consists of either washing trays of finds after a context has been completely dug, or sorting finds into categories of animal bone, pottery, glass, shell, human bone etc. and bagging them up accordingly.  We generally have one bagging or washing session each day so that trainees become familiar with the process, they become better at recognising the type of finds they could come across whilst digging, and it means we stay on top of our ever mounting pile! Both processes also involve looking out for finds that may be a little different – such as copper alloy objects, worked bone and so on as these get bagged separately as small finds. They are all labelled very tidily as they then go straight to our finds department for analysis. Having regular washing and bagging sessions also allows trainees to be even more involved with the whole on-site archaeological process.

Jagoda was also pleased with her copper alloy object - it could be a brooch, coin or some kind of fitting!

Jagoda was pleased with her copper alloy object – it could be a brooch, coin or some kind of fitting!

 

A possible medieval quern stone.

A possible medieval quern stone.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Away from finds processing, progress in the trench was also very good in week 8. We had a number of people working on a range of burials and a couple of other teams working on our earlier medieval and post-medieval features.

Continuing trainees Leah and Charlotte finished off recording their large adult burial and covered it over with a deep layer of sieved soil before moving onto another nearby burial plot. As they started cleaning the trample layer off the top of the backfill the girls came across a posthole/small pit. They quickly got to work on recording it, digging it and doing the same for the cut. They made a great team, and managed to recover a nice range of pottery and a rather curious iron hook from their feature.

Leah, placement Katie, and Charlotte proving that recording can be fun!

Leah, placement Katie, and Charlotte proving that recording can be fun!

Leah with her iron hook, and Charlotte with some of the pottery from their feature.

Leah with her iron hook, and Charlotte with some of the pottery from their feature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leah revealing the edge of her coffin.

Leah revealing the edge of her coffin.

With that feature excavated they continued with their grave backfill and by the end of the week had began to reveal a well preserved coffin from the 19th century burial phase.

Also working on the C19th burials were new starters Victoria and Jagoda. As well as their lovely finds from the processing sessions, they spent the start of their week carefully recording and lifting an infant burial. Once the remains had been put safely away they recovered the remaining pieces of coffin. All of the coffin is collected and kept with the remains for reburial within the church. After this infant was lifted Victoria and Jagoda carried on excavation in the much larger plot – this appears to be another family grave and so there will be an adult burial further down, although there may be more burials above.

Victoria and Jagoda gathering the remains of a coffin.

Victoria and Jagoda gathering the remains of a coffin.

Nearby new starters Libby and Alice were also working on a burial, however this one was at a much lower depth and so cleaning and recording were quite challenging. The girls were more than up to the task! With that inhumation recorded they re-covered the individual, who did not needed to be lifted due to the depth at which they were buried. They moved down into ‘Contrary Corner’ where they began work on a mortar filled pit with a piece of very nice medieval pottery laying just on top of this deposit. This particular piece of pottery has been looking at us for 2 whole seasons now but we have not been able to pick up as a number of later features have had to be dealt with first – hopefully next week Alice and Libby will get to lift it!

Alice, on the left, takes measurements for Libby to plot with our placement Ellen.

Alice,  (left), takes measurements for Libby to plot with our placement Ellen.

Alice and Libby trowelling their mortar-filled pit. Can you spot the green glazed medieval pot?

Alice and Libby trowelling their mortar-filled pit. Can you spot the green glazed medieval pot?

 

 

 

 

 

 

New starters Daisy and Kate were another pair working on the C19th burial horizon. Near to where Leah and Charlotte were working against the Old Rectory walls,  Kate and Daisy cleaned up and recorded a pair of infant grave cuts that had been lifted in week 7.

Daisy and Kate adding final touches to their levels and plans of their grave cuts.

Daisy and Kate adding final touches to their levels and plans of their grave cuts.

Kate, in the foreground, and Daisy cleaning back an earlier graveyard soil layer near the Old Rectory walls.

Kate, in the foreground, and Daisy cleaning back an earlier graveyard soil layer near the Old Rectory walls.

After squaring away those records they started cleaning up a soil deposit that appears to predate the infant burials in this particular area, as the graves are cut through it. It’s likely that it is another graveyard soil deposit; a spread of material that is the result of graves being repeatedly opened.

The rest of this week’s trainees were all working on deposits pre-dating the beginning of the burial ground, including our tasters. Victoria and Linda, from Leeds and Australia respectively, came from near and far to work on an 18th century surface. As they peeled away a compacted mortar surface, a soft burnt sand layer emerged. Perhaps this relates to activities going on in the post-medieval workshops on Church Lane?

Our other week 8 tasters, Daniel and Tony, worked on a series of medieval dumping layers, as well as Daniel finding that rather nice copper alloy brooch in finds washing. They managed to clean, record and excavate a trampled layer of refuse as well and gained a clearer idea about the sequence of deposition in this area.

Victoria and Linda working on their 18th century deposits.

Victoria and Linda working on their 18th century deposits.

Daniel and Tony cleaning up a sequence of medieval dumps.

Daniel and Tony cleaning up a sequence of medieval dumps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Like Victoria and Linda, James and Ellie were also working in the post-medieval workshop horizon. They were excavating a bedding material for a hornworkers shop floor, and as this peeled away yet another mortar surface was revealed. James and Ellie managed to get this deposit fully recorded and started excavating again by the end of the week.

Ellie and James revealing their mortar layer.

Ellie and James revealing their mortar layer.

Digging even further back in time were other new starters Rick and Jack, who continued work on a medieval dump sequence started by Colin and Sam in week 7. Over the course of the week they got through an impressive 4 individual dumping events, thoroughly recording each one. What they also discovered through their levelling was that each dumping layer sloped down and away from the church, which gives us an idea of what the medieval horizon around All Saints may have looked like, perhaps with the church standing taller than everything around it. If you remember from previous site diaries, we have also found a large amount of bright green glazed medieval roof tiles that paint a picture of a very impressive green-roofed medieval All Saints that would have stood out  in a very dramatic fashion. Credit goes to Rick and Jack for making so much headway through the medieval ground level and shifting a lot of earth, as well as putting some quality records together!

Jack and Rick excavating one of their 4 medieval dumping layers.

Jack and Rick excavating one of their 4 medieval dumping layers.

Week 8 was impressive all round, for excavation, recording quality and of course those star finds, and it’s all down to the trainees’ hard work. Thanks must also go to the placements for making everything at the dig run smoothly as we wouldn’t be able to do it without them either.

The week 8 team.

The week 8 team.

That’s all for now, week 9 to follow soon…

Katie

P.S. It’s not all hard work for the staff and placements, as when we finish on site for the day we and the trainees will often head to a pub, for a walk that ends up in a pub, or for food in a pub/bar – you get the idea. On Wednesdays Arran, Toby and co. play football, so sometimes if the weather is good Becky and the placements take any trainees who want to come along for 2-4-1 cocktails in a nice little bar. Wednesday of week 8 just happened to be my birthday so some of us got a little carried away with that offer…

Wednesday evening...

Wednesday evening…

...Thursday morning.

…Thursday morning.

 

Festival of Archaeology 2017 Open Day

Join us for a behind the scenes tour of the most significant excavation currently taking place within the walls of York.

 

The All Saints, North Street excavations. Image courtesy of David Dodwell

The All Saints, North Street excavations. Image courtesy of David Dodwell

The open day will be a chance to see behind the scenes of an archaeological excavation and to learn about the countless stories and amazing finds that have been unearthed from this small corner of historic York.

We are pleased to announce that we’ll be opening our excavation up to the public for site tours on July 15th as part of the 2017 Festival of Archaeology! The site is located in the grounds of one of York’s finest medieval churches and has contains a 19th century burial ground, a post-medieval rectory and evidence of medieval and earlier occupation.  Archaeologists from York Archaeological Trust will guide you around the site and show you all of the latest finds.

This will be one of many events taking place across Britain to celebrate our rich archaeological heritage.

On top of all this, the church will be holding a medieval mass (click here for more info). This is an opportunity to experience a service that would have been central to the lives of the medieval people of York, almost exactly as they would have seen, heard and even smelled it!

 

Becky, Ellen and Katie declare the open day open!

Becky, Ellen and Katie declaring last year’s open day open!

The trench will be open between midday and 4pm and people of all ages are welcome. The site is located at All Saints Church, North Street, York, YO1 6JD and is accessed through the church or as directed by the archaeologists.

The summer excavation will be in full swing at this point and who knows what we will be finding! If you would like to join the excavation and add your own discoveries, please browse the information on this website and direct enquiries to trainingdig@yorkat.co.uk

See you in the trench!

– Arran

Site Diary: Summer Week 7

Officially past the halfway point and hurtling towards the end of the summer, Monday of Week 7 was as hectic as expected! While the previous week had been largely sunny, rain clouds loomed ominously for much of this week, though luckily we escaped the worst of it and the team soldiered  on admirably. Having said goodbye to some of our longer term trainees and placements the previous week we were happy to greet some new additions to the team.

There may be trouble ahead... A dark cloud just missed the site.

There may be trouble ahead… A dark cloud just missed the site.

Put straight to work on our longest running burials, Charlotte (an undergraduate student from Leicester university) found herself dealing with one of the tallest individuals we’ve come across so far,  appearing to be over six feet in height! The height, robust build and a decidedly masculine skull made Charlotte pretty confident that we were dealing with an adult male. Her careful work guaranteed that both the skeleton and the beautifully decorated coffin remains were left intact, which was no easy task as the rest of the skeleton was very poorly preserved. We’ll be watching this one for a future career in archaeology!

A six+ foot skeleton is no difficulty for our trainee Charlotte.

A six+ foot skeleton is no difficulty for our trainee Charlotte.

And now from one of the largest burials on site, to one of the smallest. Intrepid trainee Janet had gradually been picking apart a sequence of burials throughout  her time with us, and every time we thought we’d found the latest in the series another would appear!

Towards the end of week 6, Janet made a real breakthrough with the discovery of a tiny infant burial in a very well preserved coffin. Armed with her trusty clay modelling tools Janet did an excellent job of exposing the coffin first, and then, very slowly, revealing the burial itself. The reason for the confused stratigraphy was now clear: two neighbouring grave plots had clearly become fully occupied, forcing this infant individual to be squeezed into the gap between. This act of repeatedly reopening graves and then straying outside of the defined grave plot had led to a multitude of overlapping cuts that had to be placed in the correct order by Janet. She did a fine job!

It has been a step-by-step process to untangle the sequence of burials that led to this tiny one on the top.

It has been a step-by-step process to untangle the sequence of burials that led to this tiny one on the top.

Janet has carried on her work away from site, researching the history of All Saints and the surrounding area- watch this space for a report from her on some of the discoveries she made (it may include a few sordid details!).

It was Janet's last week and we would miss her enthusiasm in week 8.

It was Janet’s last week and we would miss her enthusiasm in week 8.

Two of our youngest trainees , Steffi and Hope, joined us this week and enthusiastically took to work on a pair of infant burials. The pair were very quick to pick up the rigours of single context recording, especially planning and levelling – leaving us older people shamefully putting our phones away while they calculated everything in their heads. That maths GCSE seems like it was a long time ago…

By the end of the week Hope and Steffi had successfully excavated, recorded, and begun to lift their burials- rather impressive for two sixteen year olds on their first trip away from home. Hopefully we’ve inspired these two to continue to pursue history- though maths seems a pretty good bet too!

Imogen was visibly joyous at how quickly Hope and Steffi took to planning!

Arch Live! placement Imogen was visibly joyous at how quickly Hope and Steffi took to planning!

Our second set of youngsters, Corinne and Kat, had an equally successful week. They were rather prolific in the small finds stakes and it seemed every other moment we were getting called over to inspect some new find. The two were carrying with work on a burial sequence from the previous few weeks and took to it like ducks to water (aided by the shiny things they kept finding I expect).

Sometimes you get into interesting digging positions in the name of archaeology!

Sometimes you get into interesting digging positions in the name of archaeology!

 

Corinne and her (possibly Roman) silver coin.

Corinne and her (possibly Roman) silver coin.

On Tuesday Corinne found the holy grail of archaeological finds (apart from the actual Holy Grail, obviously)- A COIN! Spotted during sieving, the purple-ish hue of the corrosion suggests that Corinne had found a silver coin that appears to be Roman in date – a wonderful find all round.

Kat got in on the action next with a lovely bone button, possibly from the burial itself, and Corinne’s discovery of a matching one within minutes cemented these girls as the treasure finders of the week.

The buttons were particularly lovely as they added a more personal side to the story of the burial, as did four coffin studs from a decorative plate on the lid that had collapsed onto the skeleton’s sternum.

 

 

Corinne and Kat and their matching bone buttons.

Corinne and Kat and their matching bone buttons.

By the end of the week the Corinne and Kat team had successfully uncovered, recorded and lifted their burial, recovered some amazing finds, and had time to prove that another burial was laying in wait underneath. We wish we had the energy of these youngsters!

Imogen, Linda and Chris hard at work recording.

Imogen, Linda and Chris hard at work recording.

Week 7 was Christine’s second week with us and she continued to bring her cheery Australian disposition to everything- even Contrary Corner! Working with Linda, a regular returnee, Christine spent the week troweling  diligently in the north-east corner of the site to uncover the remainder of a burial that was started last week. Completing this burial was another important step towards freeing up the archaeology between the graves for excavation, so congratulations to Chris and Linda for getting us there with their unwavering enthusiasm and continuously growing pottery collection- washing their finds should be great fun in the future!

Chris with her Masonic pipe bowl.

Chris with her Masonic pipe bowl.

As a bonus Chris also found a whole clay pipe bowl, complete with Masonic symbols- a wonderful find to finish off her time with us.

Linda showing off just some of the pottery from their feature.

Linda showing off just some of the pottery from their feature.

Archaeology Live! Placement Jess continued to guide two week trainee Colin through the trials and tribulations of the archaeological process. They were joined by Sam, a new trainee, on exposing some of the earliest deposits on site. The pair spent the week carefully picking apart a sequence of dumps and levelling deposits that pre-date the  graveyard, giving us tantalising hints about the area before it became consecrated ground in 1826. The two made a formidable team in investigating medieval archaeology, quickly identifying a medieval post hole and several overlapping dump deposits. In fact, the only thing slowing these two down was the sun making the photos rather difficult to take. Sunshine also meant certain red-haired site supervisors took to clinging to the side of the church to save their pale, quickly turning red, skin…

Sam works on getting the photo of a medieval post hole perfect.

Sam (right) works on getting the photography of a medieval post hole perfect. (Note site supervisor Arran hiding in the shade…)

Colin also made the rather remarkable discovery of a copper object within a medieval layer, one of the first small finds from a confirmed medieval deposit. Despite poor preservation, Colin did a wonderful job in delicately excavating the object, probably some kind of decorative fitting originating from the 14th-16th century.

Colin and his mysterious copper alloy object.

Colin and his mysterious copper alloy object.

As Colin and Sam made progress delving into medieval layers in one area of site they had competition from some of our tasters as to who was the furthest back in time. Sam and Jonah, two two-day tasters, were excavating a medieval dump in our sondage, within the remains of All Saints’ long demolished Rectory and made excellent progress in sifting through a fair amount of rather sticky clay. It was hard work but they managed to get through the layer to uncover a clear edge for a medieval pit. An earlier evaluation trench in this area showed that if we get down far enough we’ll encounter intercutting medieval pits – could Sam and Jonah’s find be the first indication of this? This little corner of the rectory is looking increasingly exciting and the pottery is also looking increasingly ancient. The dark brown-green of later medieval pottery has made way for the bright green and splashed variety- hints we are in early medieval deposits? It will be exciting to see what the pit has in store for us.

Sam and Jonah have been working to expose the dark grey edge of a medieval pit.

Sam and Jonah have been working to expose the dark grey edge of a medieval pit.

Sam and James, a mother and son team have done what some of us have been waiting two years to do- lifting the cobble yard surface that has been visible since early 2014! “Locked in” for two years due to surrounding later archaeology- namely that pesky horn core pit that became a sequence of burials. The pair updated the record of the cobbles as the full extent of the feature has has only recently been revealed. They then carefully lifted the surface to reveal… another surface! The plot thickens.

Mother and son team Sam and James work on removing a cobble surface.

Mother and son team Sam and James work on removing a cobble surface.

This is where Georgia and Roy, a father and daughter pair, join the story. They have perhaps been the most enthusiastic tasters of the summer and the two worked on exposing and recording the rough tile surface that appeared beneath Sam and James’ cobble surface. We hope to see more of these two in the future.

Georgia and Roy have removed their tile surface and started cleaning - what a smile!

Georgia and Roy have removed their tile surface and started cleaning – what a smile!

At the end of the week we were joined by Leanne and Tracy, two lovely ladies, who were working on the last remnants of a 19th century trample layer dating to the construction of the church hall in 1860. The aim was to locate the last unidentified burial plots on-site. They managed to do this and more as they quickly found a veritable hoard of finds, ranging from pottery, to ironwork, to bone and back again from all periods.

Tracy and Leanne with finds galore!

Tracy and Leanne with finds galore!

We do more than dig and record at Archaeology Live! – we wash and sort our finds as well! This week when sorting and bagging under the watchful eye of placements we found a rather unique animal bone. Unlike many of our best bone finds, it hasn’t been worked, but it still has a story to tell. The bone in question is a sheep/goat metapodial, a bone that is in the hands/feet of humans, but in the lower legs of four-legged animals as they effectively walk on tiptoes. The point of interest is the rather lumpy area in the centre of the bone, a distorted area where bone has regrown following a break or infection. The fact that the bone has healed indicates that this animal was lucky enough to have a caring owner!

A sheep or goat metapodial with evidence of a healed break/bone infection.

A sheep or goat metapodial with evidence of a healed break/bone infection.

Urban excavations throw up a lot of finds, and while keeping on top of Finds Mountain can be a challenge, it’s always nice to come across a previously un-noticed gem!

Placement Katie laying finds out to dry in the sun - these are only from the past week of washing!

Placement Katie laying finds out to dry in the sun – these are only from the past week of washing!

The week 7 trainees also enjoyed our specialist sessions on pottery, conservation, small finds, and stratigraphy. Undoubtedly some of the finds from this week will make it into future small finds talks- especially the coin and copper object!

Arran takes our trainees through the finer points of stratigraphy under the stratigra-TREE.

Arran takes our trainees through the finer points of stratigraphy under the stratigra-TREE.

The Thursday Wander(™) took a tour of the Roman fortress this week as we followed the outline of the walls and finished at the centre of the fortress, York Minster (before we went to the pub, of course). The wander is always a must as our venerable leader Toby shows us how archaeology is still visible in a modern urban landscape, from tilting buildings due to the earth rampart of the fortress sinking, to the Minster being built in the same place as the most important buildings in Roman York.

The centre of the Roman fortress.

The centre of the Roman fortress.

Of course this is only if you can keep up with Toby’s impressive walking speed. It’s a known fact he walks faster then he runs.

By the end of the week, through a flurry of recording at the end to finish up the many, many features that we’d excavated, we had an exhausted but pleased team. This week has especially shown the broad appeal of archaeology- from 16 year olds barely done with their GCSE’s to retired folks that are following a passion they’ve had all their lives. And all the recording was in tip top shape per-normal!

The Friday afternoon round up.

The Friday afternoon round up!

Thanks to all our trainees and placements who made this a fabulous week! As we stumble, somewhat sunburnt and frazzled into the latter half of the summer we’re grateful for such amazing and enthusiastic people.

-Becky

P.S. Maintaining attention for the group photo was a bit more difficult this week, possibly due to passing cyclists almost taking Toby out as he tried to get a good picture. This was actually the best one – that probably says a lot about the others!

The week 7 team.

The week 7 team.

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