Month: October 2017

Site Diary: Summer Week 12

The final week of the 2016 season dawned with blue skies, bright sunshine and warm temperatures- the last gasps of summer. It made us appreciate quite how beautiful the church would have been in its medieval peak, with a crown of green glazed roof tiles, it would have practically glowed. The season’s end clearly got us all rather whimsical, but what everyone actually wants to hear about is the archaeology- so let’s get to it!

A good start to the day, in our beautiful site cabin

We had a mixture of newbies and regulars on site this week but it also marked the return of the other half of our favourite Italian Dynamic Duo- Elisa! Doing what she does best, she sprang straight into action recording an infant burial before moving onto some pre-graveyard deposits, picking apart the stratigraphy of a few features that have been visible, but not free to excavate for nearly three years! Elisa’s rubble and tile filled 18th century pit soon bore finds fruit with a lovely medieval vessel rim and handle fragment followed quickly by another fragment from the same vessel.  We allowed ourselves to hope that the rest would appear, but archaeology rarely does what you want it to!

Elisa proving once again how capable she is at paperwork

Elisa’s unusual medieval pottery fragments fit together perfectly!

Federica, our other skilled Italian archaeologist, continued working this week on exposing the coffin stain for her adult burial- and boy was this a tall fellow! Every time someone checked on her the coffin had crept further and further until about six foot of coffin had been exposed. As the skeleton was carefully exposed, the skull suggested that we were looking at an adult  male who died relatively young.

He just kept growing! Federica excavating the coffin of a young adult male

Federica also recovered a rather phenomenal piece of colour coat Roman pottery, complete with lettering! It was quite an unusual sherd, so we asked around our archaeology contacts and a helpful individual offered an example of another recently discovered Roman cup. It doesn’t take an expert to spot the similarity and this is incredibly helpful as it helps us visualise how the whole of Federica’s cup would have looked.

Federica’s pottery shard (above) and an example from another site (below)

Nene Valley, or colour-coat wares, were made in numerous sites, with a large production centre in the Nene Valley in Cambridgeshire. There is some similarity with this pottery type and wares from the Lower Rhineland. The production of this pottery was based in Durobrivae, a fortified garrison town now known as Water Newton, but there were also kilns in the surrounding area. The wares began to appear in the mid 2nd century but remained prolific for much of the Roman occupation of Britain.

By the Rectory, Lynne, in her second week with us, has been joined by Rose and Poppy as she continues to expose the construction cut that she and Sophia identified last week. The three made quick work of cleaning and recording the construction cut and soon began to excavate the backfill so that we can finally ‘unlock’ the rectory walls and remove them (a context is only free to dig when all related features that post-date it have been dealt with).

Lynne, Poppy & Rose busy excavating their rectory wall construction backfill

The three made a good team and exposed the footings of the rectory in record time with Lynne and her keen eyes spying a coin in the backfill which makes this the third week in a row where a Roman coin has been recovered. She was naturally delighted with her find!

Lynne’s fantastic find!

Katie and Emma this week returned to their gradually deepening quest into the medieval period and it was getting more awkward and tighter by the moment- most people wouldn’t want to spend this much time down a hole with their sister (believe me, I have two of them) but Katie and Emma did a wonderful job navigating the tricky working conditions while exposing more medieval levelling layers.

Katie and Emma getting ever deeper…

Clive and Alistair, towards the center of the site, were busy unpicking a complex sequence of medieval dumps. These are important features to attempt to piece together a picture of the use and occupation along the street running down the side of All Saints Church.

Clive and Alistair defining a pit they have come across

With a sequence of complex deposits comes much paperwork, so Clive and Alistair also have to keep up to date their pile of paperwork, as you can see getting a good use out of planning frame.

Alistair and Clive planning their medieval dumps

Also this week we were visited for a day by Maree and Debra from Australia, that is dedication to archaeology! They worked on a robber cut that was started by Zachary earlier in the week.

Maree and Debra experiencing the joys of digging in British summer!

Taking advantage of some rainy weather we also got a chance to catch up on some finds bagging, this gave us a chance to bag up properly one of the star finds of the 2015 season. This delightful late-20th/early-21st century artefact was recovered from present day topsoil and has been affectionately called ‘Creepy Baby’.

Creepy Baby attempting to get out of his/her bag!

Week 12 was a fantastic week that saw us really starting to get into the Medieval deposits, allowing us to create a story for how people used the site before it became a graveyard. Thanks to our fantastic team this week for helping us to see out the end of this year’s excavations. Now to start planning what we will do through winter and what will come in Archaeology Live! next year. Hope to see you there!

-Becky

Week 12 team shot

 

Site Diary: Summer Week 11

As we entered September and our penultimate week of the 2016 season dawned we delved deeper into medieval deposits and worked hard to reach the bottom of our 19th century burials before the season’s end. Favoured with blue skies and great finds nearly all week, week 11 shaped up to be one of our best of the year. This was aided by the wonderful team of new and old trainees, of course!

North street enjoys some sunshine while dark clouds gather…

Dan, having finally found those wayward skeleton legs last week, was finally recording his skeleton on Monday morning. The position of the skeleton meant that Dan spent a few days balancing like a ballerina on his toes to avoid stepping on the skeleton and the planning frame. We’ll make a prima ballerina out of him yet! Aided by our placement Matt, Dan was able to successfully compile his records while also looking into the later burials in his sequence to complete a rather large pile of paperwork that has been waiting to be finished since early this summer.

 

He is beauty, he is grace, he is trying very hard not to kick the planning frame

Alice, our trusted Contrary Corner Connoisseur, was joined in her final week by Liz, another of our American brethren that have ventured across the pond to excavate features older than the USA as a nation. The two made headway on one of the last burials in this most difficult area of site, starting the week by cleaning the 19th century grave cut Alice revealed last week by lifting a skeleton ready to be recorded. Alice, an old hand at burials at this point, was one of the best placed to aid Liz in her first experience of archaeology and the two continued their slow but steady work into the second burial throughout the week.

Liz and Alice work diligently away in Contrary Corner

The burial itself was quite damaged due to being laid so closely beneath the first burial and the large amounts of stones in the backfill. Alice and Liz carefully, using clay modelling tools, managed to expose the burial while doing no further damage to the skeleton. The burial was a difficult feature and the girls did well- we’ll have to get these two back in the future!

Using clay modelling tools Liz and Alice carefully reveal their skeleton

This latest series of stacked burials further confirms that there are multiple layers of burials across site, meaning that in future excavations on site we will have to take into account that there is likely another burial underneath most of the ones already recorded.

This week was also the second week we were joined by Archaeology Live! regular, Jo! Jo spent last week cleaning and removing a dumping deposit in the hopes that we had an area clear of burials- this was not to be as Jo and Gilbert discovered an infant burial squeezed into the area. This week Jo was a lone wolf recording and lifting her infant burial- and she made a rather spectacular find as she did! We now have a notable trend of coins in infant burials and, much like an earlier burial, the two coins Jo excavated were discovered around the head. I imagine most people, including our trainees, are shouting about paganism right now and the Victorian obsession with the occult. Interestingly coins on the eyes (as this might represent) have never been truly proven to be an actual phenomenon within antiquity- coins in mouth? Yes. Coins on eyes? Very rare.  Typically a payment to the ferryman of the River Styx, also known as Charon’s Obol, it is interesting to imagine that our 19th century parishioners were simply the latest people to perpetuate something of a myth.

The coins in-situ

Of course the coins deposition into the grave during the burial may have been a simpler, less grandiose gesture. We will never know for sure, but at the very least Jo found two coins and a little 19th century mystery (and mysticism). Whatever the truth of the matter, finds like these remind us of the depth of feeling associated with the burial of a loved one; something that has changed little over the centuries.

You would think finding two coins would have been the peak for Jo, but no! Jo finished the week with a hat trick of coins after she unearthed a Roman coin later in the week. Probably a nummus, these coins were low in value at the time that when they were dropped and not everyone would have bothered to pick them back up. To us though, they are practically invaluable, adding evidence to the theory that somewhere below our feet there is some very juicy archaeology. Well done Jo!

Jo’s third coin of the week- this time Roman

New starters, and sisters, Emma and Katie were thrown headfirst into some medieval archaeology in the Rectory area of site. The two are investigating a series of pits and levelling deposits and slowly uncovered a medieval cobble layer with finds indicative of a 12th century date. After lots of trowelling , a dark layer began to appear beneath an orange clay deposit that hasn’t seen daylight in eight or nine centuries. Though our sondage into the corner of the rectory is small, its depth has led Katie and Emma to some difficult digging positions. Despite this, we have managed to make good headway into a snapshot of pre-rectory, earlier medieval archaeology.

Katie and Emma appear to be enjoying their paperwork

The girls will continue these investigations next week as they continue to dig themselves further into the past…

Our other new inductees, Lynne and Sophia, spent the week trying to establish if there were any new burials at ‘This End’ of the site. They began by finishing off a grave cut for what could possibly be on the last burials in the area, ‘unlocking’ the earlier archaeology. Next it was time for the most important part of archaeology- CLEANING! Lynne and Sophia did a wonderful job at lightly troweling the entire area so that we could see if any more features (or grave cuts) were visible or if we were dealing with a large deposit that covered the area- either an earlier grave yard soil or something that pre-dates the graveyard. So far the latter seems to be holding true and the two began to record and remove a pre-graveyard layer in the hope we would finally uncover a construction cut for the Rectory.

Lynne and Sophia haven’t let planning take smiles off their faces

And Lo!, after a momentous amount of planning, Lynne and Sophia removed some of their  dumping layer to reveal an edge parallel with the rectory walls. Though they were disappointed that they wouldn’t get to dig the construction backfill themselves they have laid to rest one of the missing pieces of the rectory stratigraphy.

Lynne and Sophia revealing the construction cut indicated by the red line

This week also saw the return of one our Italian stars, Federica, who once again took to burial excavation with both gusto and delicacy. She made handy work at finishing an infant burial and starting on an adult coffin stain but the true crowning moment of the week was the recovery of a piece of a medieval or Viking comb. The finds just kept coming this week!

Federica contemplates the coffin stain she’s cleaning

Another star find this week- Federica’s comb! Did this comb a Viking beard?

We also had a contingent of eager tasters this week as well who were busy excavating some of the spaces between our myriad burials. However, in Amy’s case, she discovered a burial anyway- much like Jo last week we should have sensed that if there was a big enough space, they would fill it.

Amy examines some pottery from sieving

Later in the week Dan and Alex exposed a tile and rubble dump that may actually be the upper fill of a pit. The two carefully exposed the tiles and stones so we could get the best possible picture and plan for our records.

Dan and Alex working on their feature

It was a busy week of finds washing under the Tree of Finds led by our placement Lori and we had our usual assortment of pottery, CBM, animal bone and assorted iron objects.

Find of the week is practically impossible to decide, because we had so much success this week but find-er of the week has to go to Jo for three coins and an enormous rabbit burrow- we know she’s blonde but we nearly took the Alice in Wonderland reference too far by falling in.

Jo looks deservedly proud and giddy

It’s been a great week and we head into the final week of the 2016 excavation it’s great to see how much the site has changed even in this small space of time. Now look at the picture of us all smiling and happy… Here’s to the last week!

Thanks to all the team!

-Becky

This weeks fantastic team

2017 Site Diary: Weeks 1 & 2

The ancient streets of York can be a bustling melee of tourists and locals, battling for space beneath the jettied floors of listing medieval buildings. As with many such cities, however, there are many hidden snickleways down which one can briefly escape the clamour of modern life. Tucked between the imposing church of All Saints, North Street and its neighbouring row of 14th century cottages, the well worn paving of Church Lane is one such place to find quiet and sanctuary in the heart of the city. That was, of course, until the archaeologists arrived…

Church Lane hiding in the shade of All Saints, North Street. Image courtesy of David Dodwell

In 2014, the Archaeology Live! training excavation broke ground away from the familiar surrounds of the Hungate development for the first time in almost a decade. While the Hungate project had been a whirlwind tour covering two millennia of York’s past, the time had come for a change and the All Saints, North Street excavation proved to be an excellent successor. Three years, hundreds of archaeological contexts and thousands of finds later, the team returned to the trench for one last hurrah before once again moving to pastures new.

Here is the tale of our final adventure at All Saints, North Street and it all began with… weeding. LOTS of weeding.

Trench of the Triffids.

Abandoned for nine months, the newly verdant trench had taken on a life of its own, leaving site manager Arran the unenviable task of clearing away the greenery. Predictably, this task was carried out on the hottest day of the year but several gallons of mud, sweat and tears later, the site was back to its sparkling self and the stage was set.

Week One

The 2017 season marked a big step forward for YAT archaeologist Katie, as it marked her first season as an Archaeology Live! supervisor. This was a well deserved benchmark for Katie, who had dug at All Saints successively as a trainee, a placement and, finally, professional staff.

With rain forecast, Arran and Katie flew the new team through the rigours of the site induction and got straight to work!

Katherine, Molly, Calum and Adrienne set to work.

Katherine, Molly, Calum and Adrienne set to work on a pair of burials.

Grave Concerns

With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, York was faced with a rapidly growing population, a development that placed extra strain on the city’s already burgeoning churchyards. Churches like All Saints and St Crux, Shambles were forced to acquire additional land in which to inter their deceased parishioners and much of the current excavation area was consecrated in 1826. By 1854, all of York’s churchyards were closed by order. Reports of wells being tainted by liquids draining from burial grounds were rife and reform was badly needed. Despite this relatively brief lifespan, the burial ground has proved to be densely occupied.

Discussions with the church over the close season had brought about a change to our approach to the site’s 19th century burials. Three years of excavation had brought about a good understanding of the site’s deposit model and over seventy separate burials had been identified and recorded. In 2015 and 2016, the team had been requested to carefully lift shallow lying infant and juvenile burials for re-interment within the ossuary of the church, while deeper lying adult burials had been recorded, re-covered and left in-situ.  This new knowledge of the depth and location of the burials proved that the proposed re-development of the site would effectively destroy all of the site’s inhumations. In response, permission was granted by the church authorities to exhume the remains of all individuals buried on-site with a view for them to be temporarily housed within the church. Prior to any future construction work taking place, the remains will then be re-buried in the same site, but at a greater depth. This considered solution will allow for the site to enter a new chapter of occupation, whilst also respecting the remains of the individuals who chose to be buried there and protecting them from any damage.

This process will also allow for the remains to be studied archaeologically, revealing tell-tale signs of age, gender, illness and lifestyle. With scant historic records regarding the burial ground surviving, it was down to our trainees to learn as much as possible about the lives of the parishioners of All Saints, North Street.

Steve, Catriona, Andy and Stephen excavating a pair of neighbouring graves.

With the further investigation of the burial ground being a primary goal of the 2017 season, the whole team set to work on four of the site’s burials. Each of these individuals had been at least partially exposed in previous seasons, before being re-covered beneath a cushion of sieved earth and a protective wooden board. The first task at hand was to remove our own 21st century backfill material and to fully clean the delicate remains below. With a mix of experienced and brand new trainees, Arran and Katie were delighted by the team’s suitably patient and considered trowel work.

Working with human remains demands a high level of care and respect and each inhumation will come with its own unique challenges. From a young person in their early teens to a very elderly female, the four burials under investigation in week one allowed the team to get a good grasp of the varied ways that skeletal remains can tell us their stories.

The well preserved remains of a timber coffin.

Cleaning the well preserved remains of a timber coffin.

A defining character of practically all of the burials at All Saints has been the ubiquity of timber coffins, the majority coming complete with decorative metal panels. All four burials from week one featured clear evidence of these coffins, with remains of timber surviving remarkably well after around 160 years in the ground.

Molly and a freshly unearthed button.

Alongside the fascinating insights into burial practice, the backfills of the graves were also yielding some interesting discoveries. As a grave is usually backfilled with the earth that was upcast from its excavation, this material will contain evidence of what was happening in years prior to the cutting of the grave.

The provenance of individual objects recovered from these backfilling deposits can therefore be quite varied. For example, a 19th century individual digging a grave may accidentally drop something a contemporary object such as a coin. It is, however, equally possible that the digging of the hole may unearth much older artefacts within spoil that is briefly piled beside the grave and ultimately used to cover the coffin.

Fittingly, week one saw some very interesting objects discovered within grave backfills.

Keen-eyed Molly spotted a lovely little button that had been skilfully crafted from a piece of animal bone. It is even possible that the object could have been manufactured in one of the workshops known to have occupied the site in the decades prior to its consecration!

 

Stephen and a rather lovely architectural fragment.

In the centre of the trench, Stephen and Andy’s grave yielded a beautifully worked piece of medieval masonry that may once have adorned part of the church.

As everyone knows, there is far more to archaeology than just digging, and the team’s week was broken up with training in other important aspects of the discipline. Alongside seminars on pottery, small finds, stratigraphy and conservation, the team also processed finds and learned survey techniques. With unpredictable weather, the team were grateful to have the church as an impromptu site hut and teaching space!

Transferring benchmarks with a dumpy level.

Catriona and Katherine transferring benchmarks with a dumpy level.

Katie walking Steve and Catriona through the compilation of detailed context cards.

Katie walking Steve and Catriona through the compilation of detailed context cards.

After the long wait for the digging season to start, week one seemed to fly by in a blur! By the end of the week, one individual had already been lifted and the coffins within the other three graves were being recorded.

Thanks to the hard work and professional attitude of the week one team, the 2017 season got off to a flying start!

The week one team.

The week one team.

Week Two

In the second week of the summer excavation, we were joined by a mix of new starters and a few familiar faces. Alongside the new intake of trainees, Arran and Katie were joined by Archaeology Live! legend Dave (The Dig), who became the first placement to join the 2017 team.

A busy trench!

A busy trench!

Work continued on the four burials from week one and as the grave cuts grew ever deeper, the team were forced to employ increasingly unusual digging positions to reach the delicate remains within.

It's all a bit of a reach for Calum and Molly.

It’s all a bit of a reach for Calum and Molly.

While Calum and Molly carefully exposed an adult individual within a well-preserved coffin, returnee Jan and new starter Tony recovered the remains of a newly empty coffin and began to clean up the grave cut for recording. In doing so, they became the first archaeologists of the season to ask what would become a frequently asked question – is another individual buried within this grave plot?

Jan and Tony squeezing into a tight spot while investigating a grave cut.

Jan and Tony squeezing into a tight spot while investigating a grave cut.

Many of the burials at All Saints have been laid to rest in communal plots, with coffins buried one on top of the other. In some cases, it seems multiple individuals were interred at once, while in other cases graves seem to have been intermittently re-opened. The graves with multiple occupants may represent family plots or efficient use of the site’s limited space.

With their skeleton and coffin lifted, Jan and Tony would now have to carefully clean the base of the grave cut to ascertain whether anyone else was interred below. In this case, the pair were met with firm, intact stratigraphy at the base as opposed to looser, more mixed grave backfill – this was a single grave.

Molly lending a hand to Jenni and Sam on a complicated burial sequence.

Molly lending a hand to Jenni and Sam on a complicated burial sequence.

Elsewhere in the trench, 2016 veterans Sam and Jenni were dealing with a particularly tricky burial. This was at the very least a double inhumation and when the coffin of the underlying grave had eventually decayed and collapsed, the individual had slumped downwards into the earlier cut.

As a result of this, the skeleton was laid in a very unusual position with the right arm and the right side of the torso suspended awkwardly up to 200mm above the rest of the body. Furthermore, the remains of the lower individual were situated directly beneath those of the one above; Jenni and Sam would have to clean the skeleton with great care to avoid any confusion over which bones belonged to which person.

Calum, Jenni and Sam hard at work on a double inhumation.

Calum, Jenni and Sam hard at work on a double inhumation.

With the help of Calum and Molly, Sam and Jenni were able to expose the entirety of the skeleton and were well underway with the recording by the end of the week – a very impressive achievement! The burial was clearly of an adult individual, but damage to the skeleton during the collapse of the coffins made it very difficult to define its sex.

Sam beginning a detailed skeleton plan.

Sam beginning a detailed skeleton plan.

At the northern end of the trench, Steve and Catriona also managed to fully expose a skeleton, revealing some fascinating information about person’s health. The skeleton was clearly male and unusually robust, with exaggerated muscle attachments  suggesting that the person would have been highly active. With these skeletal abnormalities and railways, sawmills and flour mills close by, the man was clearly employed in a physical job.

Catriona cleaning a skeleton.

Steve planning a skeleton.

Steve planning a skeleton.

In spite of this active lifestyle, however, evidence from the teeth and pelvis would suggest that the person was only around 45 at the time of death – a sobering reminder of the low life expectancy of the time.

No cause of death was apparent, but the joints were extremely worn and there were many issues with the teeth. Clearly, this individual would have lived with a great deal of pain.

 

Steve and Catriona’s burial was in such a good state of preservation that the pair carried out a photogrammetric survey as well as creating a traditional plan drawing. Watch this space for the results when they’re processed!

Conservator Charlotte leading a tour of YATs conservation lab.

Conservator Charlotte leading a tour of YAT’s conservation lab.

The week two team kept up to the excellent standard of work set by the previous team and dealt admirably with some challenging conditions. Many questions were answered and the week ended on a real high when Molly was offered her first ever professional contract by Cotswold Archaeology! Over her three weeks as an Archaeology Live! trainee, Molly has learned a lot and we wish her the best in her career!

Good luck Molly!

Good luck Molly!

Week two succeeded in bringing us closer to the lives of the people we are studying at All Saints, reminding us of the unimaginable difficulties that people would have faced and none of this would be possible without the hard work of our trainees.

The week two team.

The week two team.

So, there we were. Two weeks down and it was like we’d never left. After three years, the chance to interact more directly with the human remains had proved to be highly evocative. Archaeology’s unique ability to recover intricate details of peoples’ lives can be astonishing. After just two weeks, the careful work of our team was already revealing the incredible amount of hard work that made up the lives of some of All Saints’ 19th century parishioners. We were able to learn more about the health worries that would have weighed on their minds, even down to the particulars of aches and pains. While the excavation of a burial ground obviously tells us mainly about how peoples’ lives ended, the remains can also tell us how they lived.

Over the coming weeks, there would be no slowing down. Watch this space for further updates!

In the meantime, onwards and downwards!

-Arran

 

 

Site Diary: Summer Week 10

Week 10 saw some wonderful late summer sunshine that lasted for the entire week, it felt like July rather than the start of September! To go with this lovely weather we had a good bunch of continuing, new and returning trainees eager to get into the trench on Monday. Oh – we also had some fabulous finds and archaeology too!

Ashley, Jacob and Becky leveling a burial as week 10 gets off to a beautiful start!

Ashley, Jacob and Becky leveling a burial as week 10 gets off to a beautiful start!

Continuing work on their burial were Ashley and Jacob, who at the start of the week finished off the recording of a C19th juvenile burial. With records squared away they carefully lifted all of the remains by Wednesday. Thursday and Friday were spent cleaning up the grave cut and collecting any stray coffin fragments so they could be put safely with the rest of the remains ready for reburial in the church. Then it was a case of recording the grave cut which they completed by the end of the week.

Ashley and Jacob working on their burial.

Ashley and Jacob working on their burial.

The pair over the past two weeks have done a great job of very carefully and considerately working with this burial and their records are to our usual high standards. During one of our finds washing sessions pottery enthusiast Ashley found a ceramic which has proved to be something of an enigma due to its peculiar shape – it looks a bit like a loom weight but certainly made us scratch our heads!

Ashley with her strangely shaped pottery sherd.

Ashley with her strangely shaped pottery sherd.

A closer look.

A closer look.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Also working on burials this week was new starter Dan, although his skeleton proved to be a bit tricky to expose! The back fill for this grave was much deeper than anticipated, so whilst the upper half was revealed after a couple of days, it wasn’t until the end of the week that Dan finally managed to uncover the legs.

Dan reaching into his ever-deepening grave!

Dan reaching into his ever-deepening grave!

As Dan will be with us through until week 11 he will be able to get his recording completed next week before moving onto his next task.

Mother-daughter taster team Cheryl and Lydia spent their day working on a graveyard soil for which they finished the records off, and then began to excavate. Their deposit is called a graveyard soil because it was deposited whilst the graveyard was in use. As so many graves were dug over the space of 28 years it is inevitable that we will find several layers of dark spreads of soil that spill across the site. Cheryl and Lydia’s soil was one of several spreads that have been recorded and dug, and as these deposits are almost the exact same fill as the graves themselves it makes it very hard to distinguish individual burials!

In the foreground Lydia and Cheryl work on their deposit underneath beautiful September sunshine!

In the foreground Lydia and Cheryl work on their deposit underneath beautiful September sunshine!

Working nearby on another complicated burial was new starter Jenny and continuing trainee Victoria. They were tasked with exposing a small infant that had collapsed into an underlying burial. This involved a lot of careful and fiddly work with plastic clay modelling tools but the girls managed fine and did a great job of exposing and cleaning the burial up ready for recording.

Victoria and Jenny carefully exposing their infant burial.

Victoria and Jenny carefully exposing their infant burial.

By the end of the week the girls had fully recorded the burial and lifted it safely out of the way ready for reburial in the church. the girls even had time to start looking for the person below which the infant burial had partially collapsed into.

Placement Katie helping Victoria and Jenny put drawn records together in the September sun.

Placement Katie helping Victoria and Jenny put drawn records together in the September sun.

Our other week 10 pair working on burials was continuing trainee Alice who was now in her penultimate week of 4, and returnee Theo. The pair continued exposing a well-preserved coffin in Contrary Corner that is part of the last burial plot in this particular area.

Theo and Alice photographing their coffin in Contrary Corner.

Theo and Alice photographing their coffin in Contrary Corner.

Over the course of the week the pair managed to fully record the coffin before looking for their skeleton, which they had exposed and started to record by the end of the week. Whilst excavating the back fill, Alice came across a rather lovely little button, that appears to be made of oyster shell – she was rightly very pleased with it!

Cute as a button!

Cute as a button!

A closer look.

A closer look.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some of our other star finds of the week came out of our earlier deposits that dated to before the site became a graveyard. Returnees Gilbert and Joanne paired up to work on a sequence of dumps, the first of which dated from the turn of the 19th century. Out of this top deposit Jo found a lovely ceramic marble, giving her a great start to her two weeks with us! Not to be left behind, Gilbert came across that find which archaeologists dream about – a coin, and a Roman one no less!

Jo showing off her ceramic marble.

Jo showing off her ceramic marble.

Gilbert strikes a pose with his Roman coin.

Gilbert strikes a pose with his Roman coin.

A closer look in the right light shows of the distinctively Roman figure on one side of the coin.

A closer look in the right light shows of the distinctively Constantinian figure on one side of the coin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once the C19th dump was excavated the pair revealed another deposit this time dating to the 18th century when workshops occupied the site. We have found all sorts from other deposits related to this phase of activity and Jo and Gilbert’s deposit was no exception. Continuing his lucky streak Gilbert recovered a worked bone object and managed to strike another fabulous pose for his second “victory shot” of the week.

Another star find from Gilbert; a worked bone object.

Another star find from Gilbert; a worked bone object.

A closer look.

A closer look.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gilbert’s find is one of several worked bone artefacts recovered from deposits relating to the 18th century workshops, indicating there may be some kind of bone working industry or trading going on down Church lane in the 1700s. This is not by any means certain and more information will be discovered as we delve deeper into the pre-burial horizon. Jo and Gilbert did a lovely job of getting through some of the sequence of these deposits in week 10.

Our other week 10 tasters were tasked with exploring the pre-burial horizon and over each of their one or two day courses Martin, Geri and father-daughter team Simon and Coco excavated and recorded several different dump and refuse deposits. Martin was with us for two days and managed to record one surface before excavating it to reveal another one which pre-dates the workshops, and wrote a very thoughtful blog about his two days with us.

Martin sets to work with his trowel after recording an 18th century deposit.

Martin sets to work with his trowel after recording an 18th century deposit.

Coco and Simon, although only with us for the day, also got in a bit of excavating and finds processing. The pair managed to get some lovely finds from their deposit, particularly some nice pieces of roman and medieval pottery.

Coco with a lovely piece of roman Samian ware.

Coco with a lovely piece of roman Samian ware.

Simon shows off his freshly unearthed piece of medieval splash glazed pottery.

Simon shows off his freshly unearthed piece of medieval splash glazed pottery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

However one day taster Geri had the find of the week, which she spotted during a finds washing session; a fragment of worked antler from a Viking composite comb.

Geri was thrilled with her fragment of antler from a Viking comb!

Geri was thrilled with her fragment of antler from a Viking comb!

A closer look at the detail.

A closer look at the detail.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working in even older deposits were new starters Mark and Moyra. They continued work in the same area as Rick and Alastair from week 9, excavating some of our  medieval deposits. Their first task was to record a clay layer with cobbles starting to peek upwards from it.

Mark working on the plan of his medieval clay layer.

Mark working on the plan of his medieval clay layer.

Whether the cobbles formed part of a surface or were just a dumping layer was still unclear by the end of the week, although more may become clear about the type of deposit the cobbles belong to in the last two weeks of the summer season. Despite some of these unanswered questions, Mark and Moyra’s patient trowelling was rewarded with some rather lovely finds. Moyra’s keen eyes spotted a lovely little piece from a glass vessel and Mark spotted some tiny fragments of prehistoric pottery, a huge challenge given it usually looks like lumps of mud or clay because of its poor quality!

Moyra and Mark show off their glass and prehistoric pottery fragments.

Moyra and Mark show off their glass and prehistoric pottery fragments.

Our other new starter, Rosie, was working in another older area of the site, quite far beneath the footprint of the Old Rectory where a series of medieval pits and dumps have been recorded and excavated. Rosie continued working in the ever deepening sequence, to the point where it was quite hard to spot her!

Right at the far end of the trench, Rosie is just visible as she delves deeper into the medieval sequence.

Right at the far end of the trench, Rosie is just visible as she delves deeper into the medieval sequence.

Over the course of her week’s training, Rosie photographed, recorded and excavated several medieval pits and shifted a lot of dirt. As has been the case with all of the features in this sequence so far, we are looking at leveling deposits, rubbish pits and dumping from likely domestic use in the medieval period. The depth these deposits extend to is quite impressive, and we could easily have another half metre or more of medieval deposits before we move definitively out of this time period. At the moment the finds indicate Rosie was working in 12th or 13th century medieval layers; whoever takes over next week has her high standards to work to, and hopefully they might begin to reach even earlier deposits!

Rosie's area looked fantastic and stretched to quite a depth by the end of her week.

Rosie’s area looked fantastic and stretched to quite a depth by the end of her week.

Week 10 really was a stellar week for finds and trainees! It was a thoroughly enjoyable to be a part of and I’d like to point out that ALL of our trainees produced their records themselves to a professional standard. They should all be very proud of their work both excavating and recording.

Our trainees took a well earned break from the rather warm weather to do a spot of finds washing under the Tree of Finds.

Our trainees took a well earned break from the rather warm weather to do a spot of finds washing under the Tree of Finds.

The week 10 team.

The week 10 team.

Thanks to all of the trainees for yet another wonderful week of archaeology!

-Katie

P.S: Although there was still two weeks of the summer season to go, week 10 was my last week as a placement on Archaeology Live! and I was so sad to see the back of it. After 5 seasons as both a trainee and placement learning all of this from scratch I’d been hired by none other than YAT itself. So whilst I was staying with the company for the foreseeable future (I’m still working for them now so I can’t be a complete disaster!) my experiences as a total beginner to seasoned placement on Arch Live were the reason I wanted to get to where I am now. Whilst a lot of my enthusiasm was for the archaeological process itself, the people, that is trainees, placements and staff, that I’ve met are what cemented archaeology as a no-brainer to me. So a big thanks from me goes to all the people I’ve met through archaeology as well as the Arch Live staff for teaching me everything I know!

Site Diary: Summer Week 9.

Week 9 followed the general trend of the summer 2016 season at All Saints, with a range of features from the earlier medieval period through to the 19th century being uncovered, recorded and excavated by our fantastic trainees. Week 9 also saw, at long last, the taming of ‘Contrary Corner’, our mind boggling area of the trench that over the past three seasons has made little or no sense!

As Monday arrived, an excited group of new trainees came to join our few continuing over from the previous weeks. In a change from the past few Mondays, it decided to tip it down first thing, so sanctuary was sought underneath the Tree of Finds and a spot of finds washing was done. Fortunately, our (damp) spirits were lifted when we found evidence of pesky medieval animals running amok…

A medieval tile complete with paw print from a pesky pet!

A medieval tile complete with paw print from a pesky pet!

Thankfully by lunchtime the rain had cleared and the ground was draining, so we paired people up, jumped into the trench and set people to work on their features. Only a few of week 9 trainees were working on burials whilst the others all worked in the pre-burial or earlier horizons.

Continuing from where Leah and Charlotte had finished the previous week, two of our new starters spent their first day cleaning up a coffin for a photo and were introduced to the rest of the planning process. Jacob and Ashley did a lovely job of this and put some detailed records together for us.

Becky taking measurements for Ashley to draw her 1:20 plan from.

Becky taking measurements for Ashley to draw her 1:20 plan from.

With the coffin planned, Jacob and Ashley were able to start looking for the individual within. As they carefully picked away at the fill lots of beautiful decorative plating was revealed, and any that was loose was safely bagged up. By the end of their first week of two they were just beginning to come down onto the skull. Hopefully in week 10 they’ll make equally swift and careful progress, watch this space!

Jacob does a great job carefully cleaning up some of the lovely decorative coffin plate from his burial as placement Katie gets some close up shots.

Jacob does a great job carefully cleaning up some of the lovely decorative coffin plate from his burial as placement Katie gets some close up shots.

Now, as mentioned in the Week 8 Site Diary our continuing trainees, Alice and Libby, had been working on a mortar filled pit with a beautiful piece of medieval green glazed pot laying very close to the top of the fill. It’s been staring at Arch Live staff Arran and Becky for 2 years now so they were pretty excited that we were finally going to be able to lift it! With the recording of the back fill finished, Alice and Libby finally excavated the sherd and it really is a lovely example of decorated medieval pottery.

A closer look.

A closer look.

The finds tray from Alice and Libby's C18th pit, look at all that medieval pottery!

The finds tray from Alice and Libby’s C18th pit, look at all that medieval pottery!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the girls continued work in their 18th century pit they found lots more redeposited medieval pottery of varying ages and types. The girls recovered earlier splash and brighter green glazes as well as later brown and lead glazed wares. Libby in particular had a grand end to her two weeks with us, as she found a corroded cluster of copper alloy objects that could possibly have been a piece of jewellery. Once the pit was emptied and the cut recorded the girls identified (hopefully) the last remaining burial plot in Contrary Corner. As they began to reveal a coffin on Friday, Libby ended her last day on a high note, finding a lovely antler offcut that could relate to Viking crafting – antler was used frequently by the Vikings for combs, spindle whorls and more. Alice will be with us for another two weeks so stay tuned to hear about her progress in Contrary Corner!

Libby with her possibly Viking antler offcut.

Libby with her possibly Viking antler offcut.

Libby and Alice were very pleased when they found the final burial plot in Contrary Corner.

Libby and Alice were very pleased when they found the final burial plot in Contrary Corner.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

With the revelation of the coffin and burial plot it seems that at long last the sequence of Contrary Corner has become clear – a welcome relief after all of the head scratching it has caused over the previous two seasons!

Another team working on burials were 2-day tasters Susan, Lucy and Kate. They had a very successful couple of days on site as they managed to carefully reveal the outline of a burial and start excavating the back fill.

Susan, Lucy and Kate excavating a grave back fill under the watchful eye of placement Eleanor.

Susan, Lucy and Kate excavating a grave back fill under the watchful eye of placement Eleanor.

Working close by was returning trainee Joan, who spent her week picking apart more of the C19th burial sequence. One of the larger grave plots that had contained some infant burials that have been lifted in previous weeks was excavated by Joan to its full extent. When she had it cleaned up to a good standard it was time to get her photo, however this was easier said than done…

Joan adopts a precarious position to ensure she gets a top-notch photo of her grave cut!

Joan adopts a precarious position to ensure she gets a top-notch photo of her grave cut!

However Joan managed spendidly with her precarious stance and managed to put some fab records together, it’s been lovely to have her back on site!

All of our other week 9 trainees were working on pre-burial features. Close by Joan one pair of new starters, local lad Andy and returnee Iain spent their week cleaning, recording and excavating two large spreads that both predated the graveyard.

Andy and Iain cleaning up their first pre-burial deposit.

Andy and Iain cleaning up their first pre-burial deposit.

Their first couple of days were spent on an early 19th/late 18th century deposit covering a large area, which the burials had been cut into. First they cleaned the area and then recorded it, which was quite challenging as the plans ended up spreading over 3 or 4 sheets! Iain and Andy were more than up to the task though, and with the plans squared away they began excavating that spread until they came down onto another dumping layer. This context is at least 18th century in date but could be as early as the 17th century. Despite the area being disturbed by burials, it should hopefully give us insight into the pre-burial landscape over a slightly larger surface area rather than with thin spits of land between graves as has been the case in the rest of the graveyard area.

Iain getting a good photo of his and Andy's dump feature.

Iain getting a good photo of his and Andy’s dump feature.

Continuing trainee Rick and new starter Alistair were working right in the medieval horizon on several more – you guessed it – dumping layers! The medieval deposits we have found at this site all seem to be dumping and refuse deposits, and Rick and Alistair added to our understanding of the order of events that created these deposits.

Rick and Alistair excavating one of their medieval dumping deposits.

Rick and Alistair excavating one of their medieval dumping deposits.

The dumping layers seemed to be domestic refuse – a mixture of animal bone, pottery, brick and tile and so on, however as is standard at All Saints, redeposited material from earlier periods was also present. One such find was a lovely piece of fine Roman pottery with a hand painted design on it.

Rick was really happy with his beautiful Roman pottery sherd!

Rick was really happy with his beautiful Roman pottery sherd!

Towards the end of the week after previous dumps had been recorded and lifted by the pair, Alistair excavated a silt and clay layer to expose the edge of some kind of stone surface or structure. Its precise function is unclear at the moment, and so gaining a better understanding will be a task for some of the trainees in week 10.

A closer look.

A closer look.

Alistair revealing the edge of a stone feature or surface.

Alistair revealing the edge of a stone feature or surface.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working in the slightly more recent pre-burial phase were new starters Cadan and Lori. Over the course of their week they managed to pick apart, record and excavate several surfaces and deposits from the 18th century.

Their first job was to clean up a sequence of late 18th century surfaces and deposits. With the cleaning of the first deposit Lori and Cadan revealed a tile feature that could have been a surface or footing , and so they set to getting it recorded. Once they had done that they removed the tiles and cleaned the mortar spread they had been laying above. With that deposit recorded equally speedily they also got the chance to excavate the mortar on Friday and begin to reveal the next sequence in the deposit. The pair picked up the recording process very quickly and like all of our trainees, produced really detailed drawings and other records.

Placement Katie was all smiles with how fast Cadan and Lori picked up planning!

Placement Katie was all smiles with how fast Cadan and Lori picked up planning!

Cadan also had a really lovely little find from one of the first deposits that overlaid the tiles. Whilst we mostly get fired clay tobacco pipe stems, its not that often we get complete pipe bowls, although this summer we have found 2 or 3 so far. Cadan added a wonderful little pipe from the 1700s to our collection, and obviously he was pretty happy about it!

Cadan was pleased with this charming little pipe bowl from the 1700s!

Cadan was pleased with this charming little pipe bowl from the 1700s!

1-day tasters Emelia and Susie also spent some time on similar features to Lori and Cadan – a C18th mortar deposit overlying a tile feature or surface. They spent their day on site excavating the mortar to reveal the tiles which were laid fairly flat on the ground. The parallels between their feature, Lori and Cadan’s sequence and some others on the site provide interesting insight into what the post-medieval horizon off Church Lane might have looked like across the centre of our trench. Its highly unlikely Emelia and Susie’s features are part of the same surfaces as Lori and Cadan’s but the repeated deposition of material is certainly a site wide occurrence.

Emelia and Susie lifting their 18th century mortar surface to reveal a tile feature.

Emelia and Susie lifting their 18th century mortar surface to reveal a tile feature.

All told week 9 was another wonderful one at All Saint’s with some lovely finds and archaeological sequences that are really starting to make sense appearing! Our trainees do 100% of the archaeology on site, and fund 100% of the project so we literally cannot do it without them and they all make it so enjoyable for staff and placements. Thanks again to the week 9 team!

The week 9 team.

The week 9 team.

– Katie

P.S: on the morning of the conservation tour when the trench was much quieter than usual site staff Arran and Becky took advantage of the calm to make some serious headway on our “Master Matrix” – the massive flow chart that shows the order in which all of our features occurred at All Saints. As we near the end of the 3rd season here, the matrix is looking very impressive (and it’s huge)…

Behold, our Master Matrix - We LOVE stratigraphy!

Behold, our Master Matrix – We LOVE stratigraphy!

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