Tag: history (page 1 of 3)

Site Diary: Summer Week 8

With only 4 weeks left of the 2016 summer season of Archaeology Live! it was full steam ahead at All Saints. Our Week 8 trainees made great progress on a number of burials and medieval to post-medieval deposits. They also had a stellar week for finds during several of our washing and bagging sessions, and we have now officially found gold*!

*Leaf

Yes, that’s right, on one of our finds bagging sessions a keen-eyed trainee noticed something different about a fragment of pot. Despite the sherd looking like so many other pieces we’ve found at All Saints, this sherd, upon closer inspection, had glinting little pieces of gold leaf on it!

A pottery sherd with gold leaf - fancy!

A pottery sherd with gold leaf – fancy!

However the streak of good luck didn’t stop there, as our other finds processing (washing and bagging) sessions revealed even more stellar finds. These included 2 different styles of Nene Valley cups – a type of Roman pottery, as well as a medieval flagon, a couple of possible brooches, a piece of pottery with residue still stuck on the inside, and a possible medieval quern stone! One of our Roman wares even came with a horse’s bottom on it! It would have originally formed part of a hunting scene, which was a common motif on several types of Roman pottery vessels.

A horse bottom occupies part of the hunting scene on this Roman Nene Valley cup.

A horse bottom occupies part of the hunting scene on this Roman Nene Valley cup.

 

Daniel looking very pleased with his copper alloy object - possibly a brooch.

Daniel looking very pleased with his copper alloy object – possibly a brooch.

A close up of Victoria's pottery sherd complete with residue!

A close up of  Victoria’s pottery sherd complete with residue!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finds processing consists of either washing trays of finds after a context has been completely dug, or sorting finds into categories of animal bone, pottery, glass, shell, human bone etc. and bagging them up accordingly.  We generally have one bagging or washing session each day so that trainees become familiar with the process, they become better at recognising the type of finds they could come across whilst digging, and it means we stay on top of our ever mounting pile! Both processes also involve looking out for finds that may be a little different – such as copper alloy objects, worked bone and so on as these get bagged separately as small finds. They are all labelled very tidily as they then go straight to our finds department for analysis. Having regular washing and bagging sessions also allows trainees to be even more involved with the whole on-site archaeological process.

Jagoda was also pleased with her copper alloy object - it could be a brooch, coin or some kind of fitting!

Jagoda was pleased with her copper alloy object – it could be a brooch, coin or some kind of fitting!

 

A possible medieval quern stone.

A possible medieval quern stone.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Away from finds processing, progress in the trench was also very good in week 8. We had a number of people working on a range of burials and a couple of other teams working on our earlier medieval and post-medieval features.

Continuing trainees Leah and Charlotte finished off recording their large adult burial and covered it over with a deep layer of sieved soil before moving onto another nearby burial plot. As they started cleaning the trample layer off the top of the backfill the girls came across a posthole/small pit. They quickly got to work on recording it, digging it and doing the same for the cut. They made a great team, and managed to recover a nice range of pottery and a rather curious iron hook from their feature.

Leah, placement Katie, and Charlotte proving that recording can be fun!

Leah, placement Katie, and Charlotte proving that recording can be fun!

Leah with her iron hook, and Charlotte with some of the pottery from their feature.

Leah with her iron hook, and Charlotte with some of the pottery from their feature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leah revealing the edge of her coffin.

Leah revealing the edge of her coffin.

With that feature excavated they continued with their grave backfill and by the end of the week had began to reveal a well preserved coffin from the 19th century burial phase.

Also working on the C19th burials were new starters Victoria and Jagoda. As well as their lovely finds from the processing sessions, they spent the start of their week carefully recording and lifting an infant burial. Once the remains had been put safely away they recovered the remaining pieces of coffin. All of the coffin is collected and kept with the remains for reburial within the church. After this infant was lifted Victoria and Jagoda carried on excavation in the much larger plot – this appears to be another family grave and so there will be an adult burial further down, although there may be more burials above.

Victoria and Jagoda gathering the remains of a coffin.

Victoria and Jagoda gathering the remains of a coffin.

Nearby new starters Libby and Alice were also working on a burial, however this one was at a much lower depth and so cleaning and recording were quite challenging. The girls were more than up to the task! With that inhumation recorded they re-covered the individual, who did not needed to be lifted due to the depth at which they were buried. They moved down into ‘Contrary Corner’ where they began work on a mortar filled pit with a piece of very nice medieval pottery laying just on top of this deposit. This particular piece of pottery has been looking at us for 2 whole seasons now but we have not been able to pick up as a number of later features have had to be dealt with first – hopefully next week Alice and Libby will get to lift it!

Alice, on the left, takes measurements for Libby to plot with our placement Ellen.

Alice,  (left), takes measurements for Libby to plot with our placement Ellen.

Alice and Libby trowelling their mortar-filled pit. Can you spot the green glazed medieval pot?

Alice and Libby trowelling their mortar-filled pit. Can you spot the green glazed medieval pot?

 

 

 

 

 

 

New starters Daisy and Kate were another pair working on the C19th burial horizon. Near to where Leah and Charlotte were working against the Old Rectory walls,  Kate and Daisy cleaned up and recorded a pair of infant grave cuts that had been lifted in week 7.

Daisy and Kate adding final touches to their levels and plans of their grave cuts.

Daisy and Kate adding final touches to their levels and plans of their grave cuts.

Kate, in the foreground, and Daisy cleaning back an earlier graveyard soil layer near the Old Rectory walls.

Kate, in the foreground, and Daisy cleaning back an earlier graveyard soil layer near the Old Rectory walls.

After squaring away those records they started cleaning up a soil deposit that appears to predate the infant burials in this particular area, as the graves are cut through it. It’s likely that it is another graveyard soil deposit; a spread of material that is the result of graves being repeatedly opened.

The rest of this week’s trainees were all working on deposits pre-dating the beginning of the burial ground, including our tasters. Victoria and Linda, from Leeds and Australia respectively, came from near and far to work on an 18th century surface. As they peeled away a compacted mortar surface, a soft burnt sand layer emerged. Perhaps this relates to activities going on in the post-medieval workshops on Church Lane?

Our other week 8 tasters, Daniel and Tony, worked on a series of medieval dumping layers, as well as Daniel finding that rather nice copper alloy brooch in finds washing. They managed to clean, record and excavate a trampled layer of refuse as well and gained a clearer idea about the sequence of deposition in this area.

Victoria and Linda working on their 18th century deposits.

Victoria and Linda working on their 18th century deposits.

Daniel and Tony cleaning up a sequence of medieval dumps.

Daniel and Tony cleaning up a sequence of medieval dumps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Like Victoria and Linda, James and Ellie were also working in the post-medieval workshop horizon. They were excavating a bedding material for a hornworkers shop floor, and as this peeled away yet another mortar surface was revealed. James and Ellie managed to get this deposit fully recorded and started excavating again by the end of the week.

Ellie and James revealing their mortar layer.

Ellie and James revealing their mortar layer.

Digging even further back in time were other new starters Rick and Jack, who continued work on a medieval dump sequence started by Colin and Sam in week 7. Over the course of the week they got through an impressive 4 individual dumping events, thoroughly recording each one. What they also discovered through their levelling was that each dumping layer sloped down and away from the church, which gives us an idea of what the medieval horizon around All Saints may have looked like, perhaps with the church standing taller than everything around it. If you remember from previous site diaries, we have also found a large amount of bright green glazed medieval roof tiles that paint a picture of a very impressive green-roofed medieval All Saints that would have stood out  in a very dramatic fashion. Credit goes to Rick and Jack for making so much headway through the medieval ground level and shifting a lot of earth, as well as putting some quality records together!

Jack and Rick excavating one of their 4 medieval dumping layers.

Jack and Rick excavating one of their 4 medieval dumping layers.

Week 8 was impressive all round, for excavation, recording quality and of course those star finds, and it’s all down to the trainees’ hard work. Thanks must also go to the placements for making everything at the dig run smoothly as we wouldn’t be able to do it without them either.

The week 8 team.

The week 8 team.

That’s all for now, week 9 to follow soon…

Katie

P.S. It’s not all hard work for the staff and placements, as when we finish on site for the day we and the trainees will often head to a pub, for a walk that ends up in a pub, or for food in a pub/bar – you get the idea. On Wednesdays Arran, Toby and co. play football, so sometimes if the weather is good Becky and the placements take any trainees who want to come along for 2-4-1 cocktails in a nice little bar. Wednesday of week 8 just happened to be my birthday so some of us got a little carried away with that offer…

Wednesday evening...

Wednesday evening…

...Thursday morning.

…Thursday morning.

 

Site Diary: Summer Week 7

Officially past the halfway point and hurtling towards the end of the summer, Monday of Week 7 was as hectic as expected! While the previous week had been largely sunny, rain clouds loomed ominously for much of this week, though luckily we escaped the worst of it and the team soldiered  on admirably. Having said goodbye to some of our longer term trainees and placements the previous week we were happy to greet some new additions to the team.

There may be trouble ahead... A dark cloud just missed the site.

There may be trouble ahead… A dark cloud just missed the site.

Put straight to work on our longest running burials, Charlotte (an undergraduate student from Leicester university) found herself dealing with one of the tallest individuals we’ve come across so far,  appearing to be over six feet in height! The height, robust build and a decidedly masculine skull made Charlotte pretty confident that we were dealing with an adult male. Her careful work guaranteed that both the skeleton and the beautifully decorated coffin remains were left intact, which was no easy task as the rest of the skeleton was very poorly preserved. We’ll be watching this one for a future career in archaeology!

A six+ foot skeleton is no difficulty for our trainee Charlotte.

A six+ foot skeleton is no difficulty for our trainee Charlotte.

And now from one of the largest burials on site, to one of the smallest. Intrepid trainee Janet had gradually been picking apart a sequence of burials throughout  her time with us, and every time we thought we’d found the latest in the series another would appear!

Towards the end of week 6, Janet made a real breakthrough with the discovery of a tiny infant burial in a very well preserved coffin. Armed with her trusty clay modelling tools Janet did an excellent job of exposing the coffin first, and then, very slowly, revealing the burial itself. The reason for the confused stratigraphy was now clear: two neighbouring grave plots had clearly become fully occupied, forcing this infant individual to be squeezed into the gap between. This act of repeatedly reopening graves and then straying outside of the defined grave plot had led to a multitude of overlapping cuts that had to be placed in the correct order by Janet. She did a fine job!

It has been a step-by-step process to untangle the sequence of burials that led to this tiny one on the top.

It has been a step-by-step process to untangle the sequence of burials that led to this tiny one on the top.

Janet has carried on her work away from site, researching the history of All Saints and the surrounding area- watch this space for a report from her on some of the discoveries she made (it may include a few sordid details!).

It was Janet's last week and we would miss her enthusiasm in week 8.

It was Janet’s last week and we would miss her enthusiasm in week 8.

Two of our youngest trainees , Steffi and Hope, joined us this week and enthusiastically took to work on a pair of infant burials. The pair were very quick to pick up the rigours of single context recording, especially planning and levelling – leaving us older people shamefully putting our phones away while they calculated everything in their heads. That maths GCSE seems like it was a long time ago…

By the end of the week Hope and Steffi had successfully excavated, recorded, and begun to lift their burials- rather impressive for two sixteen year olds on their first trip away from home. Hopefully we’ve inspired these two to continue to pursue history- though maths seems a pretty good bet too!

Imogen was visibly joyous at how quickly Hope and Steffi took to planning!

Arch Live! placement Imogen was visibly joyous at how quickly Hope and Steffi took to planning!

Our second set of youngsters, Corinne and Kat, had an equally successful week. They were rather prolific in the small finds stakes and it seemed every other moment we were getting called over to inspect some new find. The two were carrying with work on a burial sequence from the previous few weeks and took to it like ducks to water (aided by the shiny things they kept finding I expect).

Sometimes you get into interesting digging positions in the name of archaeology!

Sometimes you get into interesting digging positions in the name of archaeology!

 

Corinne and her (possibly Roman) silver coin.

Corinne and her (possibly Roman) silver coin.

On Tuesday Corinne found the holy grail of archaeological finds (apart from the actual Holy Grail, obviously)- A COIN! Spotted during sieving, the purple-ish hue of the corrosion suggests that Corinne had found a silver coin that appears to be Roman in date – a wonderful find all round.

Kat got in on the action next with a lovely bone button, possibly from the burial itself, and Corinne’s discovery of a matching one within minutes cemented these girls as the treasure finders of the week.

The buttons were particularly lovely as they added a more personal side to the story of the burial, as did four coffin studs from a decorative plate on the lid that had collapsed onto the skeleton’s sternum.

 

 

Corinne and Kat and their matching bone buttons.

Corinne and Kat and their matching bone buttons.

By the end of the week the Corinne and Kat team had successfully uncovered, recorded and lifted their burial, recovered some amazing finds, and had time to prove that another burial was laying in wait underneath. We wish we had the energy of these youngsters!

Imogen, Linda and Chris hard at work recording.

Imogen, Linda and Chris hard at work recording.

Week 7 was Christine’s second week with us and she continued to bring her cheery Australian disposition to everything- even Contrary Corner! Working with Linda, a regular returnee, Christine spent the week troweling  diligently in the north-east corner of the site to uncover the remainder of a burial that was started last week. Completing this burial was another important step towards freeing up the archaeology between the graves for excavation, so congratulations to Chris and Linda for getting us there with their unwavering enthusiasm and continuously growing pottery collection- washing their finds should be great fun in the future!

Chris with her Masonic pipe bowl.

Chris with her Masonic pipe bowl.

As a bonus Chris also found a whole clay pipe bowl, complete with Masonic symbols- a wonderful find to finish off her time with us.

Linda showing off just some of the pottery from their feature.

Linda showing off just some of the pottery from their feature.

Archaeology Live! Placement Jess continued to guide two week trainee Colin through the trials and tribulations of the archaeological process. They were joined by Sam, a new trainee, on exposing some of the earliest deposits on site. The pair spent the week carefully picking apart a sequence of dumps and levelling deposits that pre-date the  graveyard, giving us tantalising hints about the area before it became consecrated ground in 1826. The two made a formidable team in investigating medieval archaeology, quickly identifying a medieval post hole and several overlapping dump deposits. In fact, the only thing slowing these two down was the sun making the photos rather difficult to take. Sunshine also meant certain red-haired site supervisors took to clinging to the side of the church to save their pale, quickly turning red, skin…

Sam works on getting the photo of a medieval post hole perfect.

Sam (right) works on getting the photography of a medieval post hole perfect. (Note site supervisor Arran hiding in the shade…)

Colin also made the rather remarkable discovery of a copper object within a medieval layer, one of the first small finds from a confirmed medieval deposit. Despite poor preservation, Colin did a wonderful job in delicately excavating the object, probably some kind of decorative fitting originating from the 14th-16th century.

Colin and his mysterious copper alloy object.

Colin and his mysterious copper alloy object.

As Colin and Sam made progress delving into medieval layers in one area of site they had competition from some of our tasters as to who was the furthest back in time. Sam and Jonah, two two-day tasters, were excavating a medieval dump in our sondage, within the remains of All Saints’ long demolished Rectory and made excellent progress in sifting through a fair amount of rather sticky clay. It was hard work but they managed to get through the layer to uncover a clear edge for a medieval pit. An earlier evaluation trench in this area showed that if we get down far enough we’ll encounter intercutting medieval pits – could Sam and Jonah’s find be the first indication of this? This little corner of the rectory is looking increasingly exciting and the pottery is also looking increasingly ancient. The dark brown-green of later medieval pottery has made way for the bright green and splashed variety- hints we are in early medieval deposits? It will be exciting to see what the pit has in store for us.

Sam and Jonah have been working to expose the dark grey edge of a medieval pit.

Sam and Jonah have been working to expose the dark grey edge of a medieval pit.

Sam and James, a mother and son team have done what some of us have been waiting two years to do- lifting the cobble yard surface that has been visible since early 2014! “Locked in” for two years due to surrounding later archaeology- namely that pesky horn core pit that became a sequence of burials. The pair updated the record of the cobbles as the full extent of the feature has has only recently been revealed. They then carefully lifted the surface to reveal… another surface! The plot thickens.

Mother and son team Sam and James work on removing a cobble surface.

Mother and son team Sam and James work on removing a cobble surface.

This is where Georgia and Roy, a father and daughter pair, join the story. They have perhaps been the most enthusiastic tasters of the summer and the two worked on exposing and recording the rough tile surface that appeared beneath Sam and James’ cobble surface. We hope to see more of these two in the future.

Georgia and Roy have removed their tile surface and started cleaning - what a smile!

Georgia and Roy have removed their tile surface and started cleaning – what a smile!

At the end of the week we were joined by Leanne and Tracy, two lovely ladies, who were working on the last remnants of a 19th century trample layer dating to the construction of the church hall in 1860. The aim was to locate the last unidentified burial plots on-site. They managed to do this and more as they quickly found a veritable hoard of finds, ranging from pottery, to ironwork, to bone and back again from all periods.

Tracy and Leanne with finds galore!

Tracy and Leanne with finds galore!

We do more than dig and record at Archaeology Live! – we wash and sort our finds as well! This week when sorting and bagging under the watchful eye of placements we found a rather unique animal bone. Unlike many of our best bone finds, it hasn’t been worked, but it still has a story to tell. The bone in question is a sheep/goat metapodial, a bone that is in the hands/feet of humans, but in the lower legs of four-legged animals as they effectively walk on tiptoes. The point of interest is the rather lumpy area in the centre of the bone, a distorted area where bone has regrown following a break or infection. The fact that the bone has healed indicates that this animal was lucky enough to have a caring owner!

A sheep or goat metapodial with evidence of a healed break/bone infection.

A sheep or goat metapodial with evidence of a healed break/bone infection.

Urban excavations throw up a lot of finds, and while keeping on top of Finds Mountain can be a challenge, it’s always nice to come across a previously un-noticed gem!

Placement Katie laying finds out to dry in the sun - these are only from the past week of washing!

Placement Katie laying finds out to dry in the sun – these are only from the past week of washing!

The week 7 trainees also enjoyed our specialist sessions on pottery, conservation, small finds, and stratigraphy. Undoubtedly some of the finds from this week will make it into future small finds talks- especially the coin and copper object!

Arran takes our trainees through the finer points of stratigraphy under the stratigra-TREE.

Arran takes our trainees through the finer points of stratigraphy under the stratigra-TREE.

The Thursday Wander(™) took a tour of the Roman fortress this week as we followed the outline of the walls and finished at the centre of the fortress, York Minster (before we went to the pub, of course). The wander is always a must as our venerable leader Toby shows us how archaeology is still visible in a modern urban landscape, from tilting buildings due to the earth rampart of the fortress sinking, to the Minster being built in the same place as the most important buildings in Roman York.

The centre of the Roman fortress.

The centre of the Roman fortress.

Of course this is only if you can keep up with Toby’s impressive walking speed. It’s a known fact he walks faster then he runs.

By the end of the week, through a flurry of recording at the end to finish up the many, many features that we’d excavated, we had an exhausted but pleased team. This week has especially shown the broad appeal of archaeology- from 16 year olds barely done with their GCSE’s to retired folks that are following a passion they’ve had all their lives. And all the recording was in tip top shape per-normal!

The Friday afternoon round up.

The Friday afternoon round up!

Thanks to all our trainees and placements who made this a fabulous week! As we stumble, somewhat sunburnt and frazzled into the latter half of the summer we’re grateful for such amazing and enthusiastic people.

-Becky

P.S. Maintaining attention for the group photo was a bit more difficult this week, possibly due to passing cyclists almost taking Toby out as he tried to get a good picture. This was actually the best one – that probably says a lot about the others!

The week 7 team.

The week 7 team.

Site Diary: Summer Week 6

Week 6 marked the halfway point of Summer 2016 at All Saints, and it didn’t disappoint! Work continued on a number of burials of varying ages and sizes from the 19th century as well as several post-medieval and medieval deposits. We were able to answer some questions about the area within the footprint of the Old Rectory too. Whilst some trainees continued from the previous week we had several new starters joining us on Monday for another week of discovery.

Week 6 saw some mixed weather and a lot of recording and digging!

Week 6 saw some mixed weather and a lot of recording and digging!

Headway was made with a number of burials this week by our 1 – 2 day tasters and our week-long trainees. New starter Leah joined continuing trainee Anna to carry on exposing the coffin remains within the burial of a juvenile. Once they had found the extent of the coffin, which had survived as a dark stain with some wood fragments and metal fittings, they were able to record it. It was then time for the girls to continue with some careful digging downwards to locate the skull before exposing the rest of the remains.

Locating the skull first is a useful way to begin as it is easy to work your way down the skeleton without disturbing the more delicate areas such as the hands and feet. The coffin recording and cleaning of the remains took most of Anna and Leah’s time up, but it was worth it for the end result and they had uncovered half of the skeleton by the end of the week.

Leah (right) and Anna (centre) record their inhumation with placement Katie.

Leah (right) and Anna (centre) record their inhumation with placement Katie.

Nearby, continuing trainee Katie started lifting the infant burial recorded by her and Jess the week prior and, once the remains were safely stored for reburial in the church, she was able to clean up and record the small grave cut.

Katie delicately cleaning up an infant-sized grave cut.

Katie delicately cleaning up an infant-sized grave cut.

With the records for that particular individual squared away, Katie set about finding more of the coffin in the much deeper adult grave she had originally been working on in week 5. On Tuesday we were joined by two-day taster Charlie who began working across from Katie on cleaning up another infant burial for recording. It was a bit cramped for the girls but they managed very well!

Charlie (right) works on an infant burial whilst Katie (left) works on a deeper adult burial. Anna and Leah are in the background working on their juvenile burial.

Charlie (right) works on an infant burial whilst Katie (left) works on a deeper adult burial. Anna and Leah are in the background working on their juvenile burial.

Charlie managed to clean and record her infant over the course of her two days so it was ready to be lifted. On Thursday 1 day tasters Ann and Jan worked on that and another nearby infant burial, beginning to lift one and exposing more of the other.

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Ann and Jan working n their two infant burials.

Ann and Jan working n their two infant burials.

On Friday we were joined by another pair of 1 day tasters, Ann and Libby, who were set to work on the same cluster of burials. In the afternoon Becky managed to take them through the recording process – not bad for a day’s work!

Site staff Becky explaining the recording process to day tasters Ann and Libby.

Site staff Becky explaining the recording process to 1 day tasters Ann and Libby.

Also working on burials in week 6 was continuing trainee Janet who, alongside new starter Sam, was tasked with trying to understand an incredibly complex sequence of intercutting burials of varying ages near the centre of the trench. The reason for this complexity is the use and re-use of two neighbouring grave plots for interments being followed by additional burials being squeezed into the gap between the two plots – making the individual burial events very hard to pick apart.

When burials are stacked on top of each other within family plots, the deterioration and collapse of the lower coffin(s) causes the later burials above to sink into the newly formed voids. Add intercutting graves from overlapping burial plots as well as all the pre-burial activities in the area and it can become very difficult to see separate graves until you start digging them. By the end of the week Janet and Sam’s patient work had given us a much better understanding of the burial sequence here and we identified the next grave, that of an infant, ready to record and dig. In week 7 Janet will be able to continue work on this grave by finishing her recording and starting to look for the coffin.

In the foreground to the right, Becky, Sam and Janet try and figure out their burial sequence.

In the foreground to the right, Becky, Sam and Janet try and figure out their burial sequence.

Meanwhile Sam moved onto a nearby cobbled area that had survived from the post-medieval period between two graves, and spent the end of the week putting some detailed records together. These tiny spurs of archaeology are the only insight we have into pre-burial activities in the graveyard area of All Saints, so it is extremely important to treat them with great care.

Sam recording a post-medieval cobble surface that survived between two C19th graves.

Sam recording a post-medieval cobble surface that survived between two C19th graves.

On Friday of week 5 Tom and Alec came across a previously unidentified infant burial whilst excavating a graveyard soil, and so on Monday of week 6 an important job was to get the burial recorded so it could be lifted out of harms way. It was up to new starters Hasel and Lesley to plan the back fill and remains.

It was a highly truncated grave and space was at a premium, so Lesley moved onto another feature and Hasel spent the rest of the week lifting the skeleton and looking for the edges of the cut, which were far from clear! In the Week 2 Site Diary site supervisor Arran discussed possible explanations for why there seems to be a large quantity of inter-cutting infant burial plots located in this particular area in line with the church tower. This grave adds further to the evidence for somewhat less careful burial of younger individuals in this area of the graveyard.

Placement Matt take Lesley and Hasel through the recording process for their truncated infant burial.

Placement Matt take Lesley and Hasel through the recording process for their truncated infant burial.

The remainder of Lesley’s week was spent exploring the most ancient deposits that we have reached so far. A sondage (a “trench within a trench”) within the footprint of the Old Rectory has given us the chance to investigate the nature of deposits beyond the 19th century graveyard. So far we have been finding securely dateable C14th pits and dumps which has led us to wonder if we are inside a building that pre-dates the Rectory, or in an outside space such as a yard or garden. The other question we would like to answer is if the space was for industrial or domestic (or both!) use.

In week 2, trainees Alison and Helen found 14th century silting and a compacted layer that could have been a surface. On the July Weekend Dig Beverley excavated a C14th silty ashy layer, in week 3 David and Kathryn dealt with a medieval midden layer and in week 4 tasters Caroline, Lisa, Lyn, Ann and Pat worked on another series of dumps containing animal bone and hearth clearance material. Week 5 saw Penny and Oli excavate a large pit of butchered animal bone, again from the 14th century. Now, Lesley has added to the record of this area with the excavation of a deposit containing a lot of fish bones; it was yet another medieval refuse pit.

Lesley and Matt excavating a rather deep medieval rubbish pit.

Lesley and Matt excavating a rather deep medieval rubbish pit.

So Lesley’s pit is another piece of evidence that helps answer our questions, this area is very likely to have been an outside space at this point as you wouldn’t expect to find this kind of waste inside a domestic dwelling. The waste could be from domestic or industrial activities related to the preparation of food – hence the butchery, fish bone and hearth waste. Hopefully as the season goes on we will be able to learn more about the activities that produced this waste.

Working in medieval deposits elsewhere on site were new starters Colin and Annemarie, who spent their week taking up several dumping layers that are some of the oldest on site. Each layer was cleaned, photographed, planned, levelled, described and then excavated. By the end of their week they had made it through several distinct layers and had them all recorded and ready to be added to the site matrix. That’s pretty fast work!

Colin and Annemarie excavating one of a sequence of medieval dump deposits.

Colin and Annemarie excavating one of a sequence of medieval dump deposits.

Working in the more recent pre-burial horizon were other new starters Bill from the UK and Christine, who joined us all the way from Australia! In many places on the site there are little spurs of land between graves, like the cobbled surface Sam was working on, that give us a bit of a keyhole look at the post-medieval activities on the site. Several of these spurs survive, albeit precariously, in “Contrary Corner,” and so it was here that Bill and Chris started to record and excavate in week 6. Like Colin and Annemarie they made their way through several different deposits meaning they got to learn and practice their recording skills quite frequently! We were expecting these deposits to be 18th century in date, although the pottery suggests some of the lower deposits were possibly medieval. Bill and Christine turned out to be a crack team at recording and they made really good progress on these very fragile spurs of ground.

Bill and Chris working hard in Contrary Corner.

Bill and Chris working hard in Contrary Corner.

Throughout the week the trainees received all of the usual specialist sessions on pottery, conservation, small finds and stratigraphy as well as numerous finds washing/bagging sessions. One finds washing session proved particularly fruitful for Colin who came across this rather nice socketed worked bone object, it could be post-medieval in date:

Colin looking rightly pleased with his worked bone object.

Colin looking rightly pleased with his worked bone object.

Another finds washing session revealed a chicken print in a medieval roof tile. You can just imagine the frustration of the potter checking on his drying tiles and finding out a stray chicken has ran all over them!

Evidence of medieval chickens running amok!

Evidence of medieval chickens running amok!

Well that’s all there is to report on for this week, it was a great chance to answer some long-held questions about the medieval period at All Saints – although there is still much more to be learned. We also made progress on understanding the more complex burial sequences on the site as well as getting some of the more fragile remains lifted safely out of the way. Friday of week 6 also marked the halfway point of the summer season at All Saints, and it was amazing how fast it had gone so far, but they do say time flies when you’re having fun – so far we’ve had a ball and hope the trainees have too!

Thank you of course, to the trainees for making Archaeology Live! happen and making it so much fun, and thank you readers for reading!

Katie

 

P.S: We knew this was going to be a good week as Becky kicked off Monday by getting a high-five from a resting bee…

Strange things happen when you spend 6+ weeks in the sun...

Strange things happen when you spend 6+ weeks in the sun…

Site Diary: Summer Week 5

Week 5 saw the Archaeology Live! team discovering more of the pre-burial activities on North Street including recycling habits, post-medieval workshop foundations, medieval refuse pits and examples of Roman tableware. This was also the week of arguably our creepiest find to date, scroll down to find out more…

Week 5 gets underway.

Week 5 gets underway.

At the end of week 4 dynamic duo Matt and Christine had cleaned up, photographed and recorded a gravestone footing relating to a 19th century burial. In week 5 our new trainees Tom and Alec picked up where they left off and started to remove the footing. Whilst the construction of this footing is undoubtedly 19th century in date, it turned out to be built of recycled medieval bricks and Roman masonry! Utilizing earlier materials had its perks; it was cheaper than the cost of acquiring and working stone or bricks, and logistically easier to re-use materials found lying around a nearby area than have them brought in from further afield. Tom and Alec’s footing is not the only example of re-use at this site or in York as a whole; as is often pointed out on our Thursday night wanders, large blocks of Roman masonry in particular can be found in all sorts of places, often in churches and other similarly sized structures.

Tom lifting the last bits of a recycled brick and stone footing.

Tom lifting the last bits of a recycled brick and stone footing.

Elsewhere on site we found evidence of more recycling, this time in the post-medieval period. The general theory about the appearance of post-medieval North Street is one of open fronted lean-to workshops built in timber. So far we have recorded and excavated some post-pads that were substantial enough to have held sizeable structural timbers, and in week 5 two of our tasters, father and daughter team Richard and Francesca were working on one such footing. In their two days on site they managed to clean, record and excavate their footing and it turned out to be made of faced medieval church masonry! Whether it was robbed out of All Saints or left lying around is impossible to tell, but clearly these workshops incorporated odd bits and bobs of other nearby structures, which contributes more towards the idea of a ramshackle collection of workshops along Church Lane in the post-medieval period.

 

Richard and Francesca's footing, which was made of re-used church masonry.

Richard and Francesca’s footing, which was made of re-used church masonry.

Also delving into the post-medieval period were new starters Rachel and Graham, who started their week working on a rubble filled layer. Once that deposit was recorded they carried on and dug even further back in time, to find a securely dated 13th century deposit. We could date this deposit because of the pottery that came out of it, as a feature cannot be any earlier than the most recent piece of pottery within it. After the specialist pottery session on Tuesday with site supervisor Arran, Rachel and Graham were able to put their newly acquired knowledge to the test when dating this deposit.

Rachel and Graham working on their 13th Century deposit.

Rachel and Graham working on their 13th century deposit.

Windows into medieval All Saints were explored by our other two-day tasters – mum and son Penny and Oli. They excavated to the base of a 14th century pit in the area of the old Rectory. It contained the all important dateable pottery fragments as well as butchered animal bone. So not only did we find a securely dated medieval pit, the waste thrown into it can give us ideas of the activities going on at the time. In this case, butchery waste tells us what is being eaten. So far at All Saints we have found fish, cattle, sheep/goat and chicken bones all showing evidence of butchery as well as considerable amounts of tanning waste. Penny and Oli, like our other tasters Richard and Francesca, finished excavation of their feature and squared away the records by the time their taster days were over – that’s pretty fast work for beginners!

Penny reaches to the bottom of her pit, which was filled with butchered animal bone and pottery.

Penny reaches to the bottom of her pit, which was filled with butchered animal bone and pottery.

It was great to know that before the halfway point of the summer season some parts of the site were now comfortably within the medieval horizon. However, there were of course more burials to find, record and lift in week 5.

New starter Janet and returnee Pete spent their week working on a young adult burial which needed cleaning up and recording. Once cleaned we had a better idea of whether to lift this individual or leave them in-situ, as at present we are lifting infant and juvenile burials only.

Pete re-covering an adult burial on Friday.

Pete re-covering an adult burial on Friday.

Being the burial of an adult, we have left this individual in place, and so after a couple of days spent meticulously recording each detail Pete and Janet re-covered the skeleton with a deep layer of sieved soil to protect it. Both trainees did a fantastic job and produced quality records.

Janet looking very pleased with her Medieval window glass

Janet looking very pleased with her Medieval window glass

A highlight of Janet’s first week on Archaeology Live! was a lovely diamond shaped fragment of medieval window glass that her keen eyes spotted during a session of finds washing!

A closer look.

A closer look.

Once their gravestone footing was out of the way and the cut recorded, Tom and Alec moved on to recording a large spread of graveyard soil, a mixed dump of material that accumulated over the lifespan of the graveyard in the early to mid-19th century. By the end of the week they began to excavate the soil and on Friday they came across a previously unidentified infant burial. It was covered over until it could be properly recorded in week 6.

Trainees Alec (left) and Tom (right) set to work on excavation of a graveyard soil under the watchful eye of new placement Matt.

Trainees Alec (left) and Tom (right) set to work on excavation of a graveyard soil under the watchful eye of our new placement Matt.

Nearby new starters Katie and Jess had a busy week of searching for and recording more burials. Katie worked on a deeper adult-sized burial, and Jess was working on a much shallower infant burial next to her.

Katie (left) works on a deep adult burial whilst Jess (centre) focused on a much smaller, more shallow infant burial.

Katie (left) works on a deep adult burial whilst Jess (centre) focused on a much smaller, more shallow infant burial.

By the end of the week Katie hadn’t managed to find her burial although some parts of a coffin line had started to appear, it was obviously very far down! However she teamed up with Jess to record the delicate infant burial that had been exposed on Friday.

Katie, (left) with the help of placement Taralea, adds the finishing touches to the plan of the infant she and Jess drew.

Katie, (left) with the help of placement Taralea, adds the finishing touches to the plan of the infant she and Jess drew.

Continuing in the same plot as week 4, Anna and Frankie recorded an infant burial that had been heavily disturbed by burrowing animals. Once the burial had been recorded and lifted the girls cleaned up the grave cut and found… another grave! This particular area has already had several burials lifted and so may well be a family plot. For the rest of the week the girls continued to excavate until they found their coffin outline on Friday. However before they reached the coffin the backfill had produced a wonderful array of pottery sherds.

A nice assemblage of pottery from Anna and Frankie's grave back fill.

A nice assemblage of pottery from Anna and Frankie’s grave back fill.

Here we have a handful of pottery from Anna and Frankie’s feature, some of you may be able to identify Roman, Norman and Viking pottery! The most plentiful pottery from this 19th century feature was Roman, with greywares, samian, black burnished and color coat all making an appearance, as well as a large piece of an amphora, a large Roman storage vessel. What is notable about these sherds is they are mainly examples of fine or high status wares.

Frankie and her freshly unearthed sherd of an amphora.

Frankie and her freshly unearthed sherd of an amphora.

Amphorae were large storage vessels for luxury liquid and dry goods such as wine and oil. Samian, colour coat and black burnished wares in particular were made to be displayed on a table for people to see as a sign of wealth. All of these pottery types have been found across the site, which is located on the colonia side of Eboracum. This gives us some indication of the lifestyle of these Roman residents and supports the generally accepted idea that those residing in the colonia were serving citizens, officials and retired legionnaires.

Frankie (foreground) and Anna (centre) reaching into their grave back fill looking for a 19th century coffin.

Frankie (foreground) and Anna (centre) reaching into their grave back fill looking for a 19th century coffin.

Week 5 was one of interesting stratigraphic tales and even more interesting finds. However one particular find from this week has certainly stayed with me and probably several others. It was on a sunny tea break like many others when placement Ellen sat near the Tree of Finds and unearthed this thing from the topsoil…

We simply call it Creepy Baby.

Here in the YAT Fieldwork office, site supervisor Arran has had it hanging off of his shelving unit underneath site mascot Mr Fish for months now, and I’m sure it watches everyone in the office who walks by. Goodness knows how it got to the back of All Saints, but I don’t like it.

Besides “Creepy Baby,” week 5 had been another packed week with trainees working on features of many different dates and, as always, all of their hard work has been to a consistently high standard. They are assisted of course by our staff and placements, but its the trainees who make Archaeology Live! the success that it is.

The week 5 team.

The week 5 team.

Thanks for reading, keep an eye out for week 6!

Katie

P.S. In true Throwback Thursday style, a returning trainee, Janet, found a picture of All Saints back in 2014 and its safe to say we have moved a lot of dirt in three seasons! See for yourself below…

June 2014.

June 2014.

July 2016.

July 2016.

Site Diary: Summer Week 4

Week 4 of the 2016 excavations at All Saints North Street saw a lot of finds, excellent progress on our 19th century burials and the occasional bout of heat-induced delirium – Summer had finally arrived! With another fully booked week and nine new starters, the team were anticipating another hectic but enjoyable week. They weren’t wrong on either count! This week, York Archaeological Trust’s Katie Smith tells the tale.

Cloudless skies over All Saints.

Cloudless skies over All Saints.

On Monday, our freshly inducted week 4 trainees were able to jump straight in the trench thanks to the excellent sunny weather! The new team set to work on our C19th burials, with (inadvertently) rhyming new starters Anna and Hannah taking over the area Jenni and Annie had been working on in week 3 – a grave cut with the double burial of suspected siblings. As had been suspected, this burial did indeed overlay an earlier infant/juvenile grave. However before they managed to find the outline of a small coffin, Hannah found a lovely medieval jug handle re-deposited within the grave backfill.

Hannah proudly displaying her first ever medieval find.

Hannah proudly displaying her first ever medieval find.

Not to be left out, Hannah’s digging partner Anna managed to get herself a rather nice find later in the week. Despite the grave backfill proving to be rather compacted and mixed, Anna’s keen eyes spotted a tiny coin! The size and shape of it makes it likely that it is a minim, the Roman equivalent of small change.

Anna and her tiny Roman minim.

Anna and her tiny Roman minim.

A thick layer of corrosion means that no further comment can be made about the coin’s date until it is seen by our conservation team, however, it is always wonderful to discover objects that were misplaced by the citizens of Eboracum and to wonder quite how the coin ended up in a 19th century grave backfill.

Grace, Anna and Hannah adding levels to single context plans.

Grace, Anna and Hannah adding levels to single context plans.

By the end of the week the girls had managed to find and record a previously unidentified coffin and still had time to start to reveal the skeleton of a juvenile. In addition, Hannah and Anna also assisted with the recording of burials being worked on right next to them by Grace and Catherine.

Hannah and Anna carefully revealing the outline of a small timber coffin.

Hannah and Anna carefully revealing the outline of a small timber coffin.

Grace spent most of her week with us working on a very small, fragile infant burial. As usual the first thing to be identified, recorded and then dug was the grave backfill. Then, very carefully and patiently, Grace found the coffin which was fully recorded before she began looking for the remains themselves. Because of the size of this person Grace really had to take her time as infant remains are much more fragile than juveniles and adults, this is a difficult task, but she did a great job.

Painstaking excavation of a tiny infant skeleton.

Painstaking excavation of a tiny infant skeleton.

Catherine joined us all the way from New York and picked up where week 3 taster student Robert had previously been working, looking for a deeper burial. The search for this individual, however,  had to be put on hold after an unexpected and somewhat gruesome discovery – the jumbled and incomplete remains of a newborn child.

While carefully troweling through grave backfill, Catherine found evidence that a 19th century grave digger had accidentally disturbed an infant burial when reopening an existing grave to inter another individual.

Despite the site’s proliferation of infant burials in this area, this is the first example of a human grave from the 1826-1854 phases of burials being almost completely destroyed by the insertion of a later grave. Although this was almost certainly accidental it was still a sobering find.

The fact that the remains had been gathered together and reburied suggests that the person who dug the grave had noticed their mistake and attempted to show a degree of respect to the infant. Despite this, much of the skeleton was never found.

With assistance from Grace, Catherine made a complete record of the infant before lifting the fragile remains out of harm’s way.

Grace and Catherine excavating with Arch Live! placement Ellen.

Grace (left) and Catherine (right) excavating with Arch Live! placement Ellen.

At the other end of the trench in ‘Contrary Corner’ (where the archaeology tends to be a little difficult), Molly and Meg began their second week on-site with the difficult task of reaching down into an ever-deepening grave cut in very hot weather to find the skeleton within their coffin.

Meg, Molly and Arch Live! placement Katie in Contrary Corner.

Meg, Molly and Arch Live! placement Katie in Contrary Corner.

Whilst parts of the skull had been revealed in the previous week, Molly and Meg had to go down quite a bit further to find the rest of their skeleton. This is a trend that occurs in the majority of inhumations and happens because the skull generally sits higher than the rest of the body when laid flat. While the rib cage settles and flattens during decomposition, a well-preserved adult skull remains intact.

Molly reaching into a deep grave cut.

Molly reaching into a deep grave cut.

With space at a premium, the girls worked out a good system of one person digging while the other was sieving; swapping places until they eventually found the torso. Despite challenges from the weather and the awkwardness of their deep grave cut, Molly and Meg were more than up to the task.

Molly, Meg and Katie completing their records.

Molly, Meg and Katie completing their records.

After finishing this burial and re-covering it with lots of sieved soil to protect it, Meg and Molly moved onto a different area of the site.

Molly measuring a stone footing.

Molly measuring a stone footing.

By the end of the week they had also excavated and recorded a posthole, a patch of graveyard soil and a post-medieval stone footing! That’s a lot of in some sweltering heat, but that didn’t seem too much of a problem for Molly and Meg, except for the occasional moment of sun-induced delirium…

Archaeology is a serious business...

Archaeology is a serious business…

Elsewhere on site, Frankie and Kaylan and new starters Phil and Naomi were working on burials for the week. Naomi and Phil started looking for a grave but they soon discovered they had not one, but two juvenile burials within one grave cut. The second burial was discovered while the grave cut was being widened in order to find the full outline of the coffin stain from the first burial.

Frankie, Kaylan, Phil and Naomi hard at work in neighbouring grave plots.

(From foreground) Frankie, Kaylan, Phil and Naomi hard at work in neighbouring grave plots.

Naomi and Phil recorded both coffins and then proceeded to look for the remains of one of the juveniles. Whilst they did not fully uncover this burial by the end of the week, given the fact they found two burials where we only expected one, they made fantastic progress on the recording and understanding of this burial sequence.

Recording a 19th century coffin.

Recording a 19th century coffin.

Frankie and Kaylan were paired up and tasked with finding the remaining burials in the middle of the trench, an area that has been serving as our main route on and off the site. Heavy footfall has made the ground particularly compacted in this part of the trench and, as if trowelling that wasn’t hard enough, the mixed up soil from constant past activity of grave after grave being dug makes it very difficult to spot grave outlines. On top of all this, the baking heat drying out the archaeology and turning everything the same shade of grey meant one thing; it was time to bring out the watering can!

Frankie adding a little colour to a very dry trench.

Frankie adding a little colour to a very dry trench.

Sure enough, the trick worked and Frankie and Kaylan followed a faint edge to reveal the clear outline of a burial, destroying one of site supervisor Arran’s pet theories in the process.

Kaylan defining the head end of a 19th century grave cut.

Kaylan defining the head end of a 19th century grave cut.

Up to this point, no burials had been found in the central area of the trench, leading to the suspicion that this strip of land had once been used as a routeway into the burial ground. Frankie and Kaylan’s discovery revealed that burials were indeed present in the area, leaving only a much reduced area seeming burial-free.

Kaylan and Frankie adding levels to their coffin plan.

Kaylan and Frankie adding levels to their coffin plan.

Working nearby on another burial was the crack team of Matt and Christine. They made impressive progress over their week and had finished recording their burial by the Tuesday, and lifted the skeleton on Wednesday.

Arch. Live! placement Taralea guides Matt and Christine through the recording process.

Arch. Live! placement Taralea guides Matt and Christine through the recording process.

Finishing all of the excavation and recording before the week’s end on that particular burial, they even had time to clean up a brick footing for a gravestone. They certainly made a determined duo! This week marked Matt’s final week as an Archaeology Live! trainee. Following a week spent brushing up on his recording skills, he was all set to begin his first ever placement the following week.

Christine and Matt meticulously excavating an infant burial.

Christine and Matt meticulously excavating an infant burial.

One of the main features of this quiet little site nestled in the shade of All Saints Church is its role as a burial ground for the parishioners between 1826 and 1854. The records for the burials from this time period have unfortunately not survived, and so the only information we have is the detailed archive that our trainees have been producing during their time on Archaeology Live! Although we will never know much fine detail about individual lives, we are remembering those buried here through the creation of these records and helping to protect their remains from damage. Our trainees do 100% of the recording on Archaeology Live! and needless to say, regardless of prior experience or artistic talent, our trainees consistently produce professional quality records. We’re very proud of them and the work they do!

Archaeologists in their element.

Archaeologists in their element.

Even trainees who only spend a couple of days with us get the chance to contribute to the site archive, and this week we had 5 tasters joining us. Caroline, Lisa and Lyn joined us at the start of the week and made good headway on the medieval deposits within the old Rectory walls that David and Kathryn had been working on in week 3. They excavated and recorded another dump deposit from this sequence, meaning they’d been able to have a go at trowelling, sieving, cleaning, photography, a 1:20 drawn plan, levels and a context card. Furthermore they were shown how archaeologists date features by pottery type, and so it turned out their deposit might be as early as the 13th Century in date!

A busy taster day in the medieval period.

A busy taster day in the medieval period.

Later in the week, tasters Ann and Pat continued to work on the same area and found another layer of dumping material, this time with a concentration of animal bone and clearance from a hearth. “But surely one dump deposit is the same as them all,” you may ask; however we have been able to see changes within each successive layer. Every pit, post hole, dump, grave or layer (etc. etc.) is indication of a newly discovered event in history and therefore needs to be recorded as a unique context. By week 4, our trainees had already identified nearly 750 of these historic events, adding to a detailed timeline of the changing ways the site has been used.

Ann and Pat descending further back in time.

Ann and Pat descending further back in time.

The way in which we differentiate one layer from another, particularly with something as mixed up as a dumping layer, is not just the colour of the soil but the compaction, composition, inclusions and the finds. Ann, Pat and Clare’s dumping had hearth debris in it, whereas the overlying dump deposit only had occasional flecks of charcoal – not the same as the waste from cleaning out a hearth. So there you have it, two different types of dumping from two different events.

Work continuing in our medieval sondage.

Work continuing in our medieval sondage (left).

If the complexity of the deposition in this little sondage continues as we go further down (and therefore further back in time), we ‘ll gain a detailed insight into the site’s medieval development. As the rest of the site is so densely populated with burials from the 19th Century, this area offers our only uninterrupted look into the pre-1826 landscape at North Street. Our week 4 tasters, despite only being here for a couple of days each at most, have helped us understand the beginning (archaeologically speaking) of a potentially extensive sequence of dumping relating to the medieval occupation of this site.

Sorting and bagging finds prior to specialist analysis.

Sorting and bagging finds prior to specialist analysis.

Over the course of the week the trainees also enjoyed our specialist sessions on pottery, conservation, small finds and stratigraphy, and when it got a bit too hot in the trench, refuge was sought  either finds washing under the welcome shade of the Tree of Finds (the ‘Stratigratree’ on Fridays) or bagging dry finds in the cool of the church.

Escaping the heat beneath the tree of finds.

Escaping the heat beneath the tree of finds.

As with any of our washing and bagging sessions, occasionally something more unique will crop up. This week we found a bit of 18th Century transfer ware with this adorable little teapot on it.

Tea, anyone?

Tea, anyone?

Despite the immense heat and shifting lots of earth, the trainees managed to keep smiles on their faces all week long, so a big thanks to all of them for not letting that rare British summer beat them!

The week 4 team.

The week 4 team.

Hopefully there will be more site diaries coming soon so until then, thanks for reading!

-Katie

P.S Week 4 brought lovely weather but also a new site mascot as Planty hadn’t survived winter very well. We now have a fluffy little sparrow fledgling zooming around the site looking for crumbs and crisps, and he wasn’t really bothered how close he had to go to us in order to get his lunch. Sometimes if we didn’t put crumbs down soon enough, he’d just help himself…

Of course, we had to name him Captain Jack.

Captain Jack Sparrow

Captain Jack Sparrow

 

 

Site Diary: July Weekend

The funerary customs of 19th century Britain have long fascinated those with a passion for the past. How we deal with death has changed remarkably over the millennia and by Victoria’s reign countless influences had contrived to create a heady brew of tradition, superstition and etiquette that can seem detached, morbid and even bizarre to modern observers. The highly ritualised world of burial and mourning seen in Victorian Britain was not, however, devoid of emotion. The painstaking work of our trainees here in York is enabling us to recover lost moments of genuine humanity from layers of earth and bone.

Ominous skies over All Saints.

Ominous skies over All Saints.

Over 160 years ago, a small child in the ancient parish of All Saints, North Street succumbed to illness or disease and passed away. In an age of high infant mortality this was  not an uncommon event, although this would have been of little comfort to the family the child was leaving behind. Like many others at the time, the infant was laid to rest in a quiet parcel of land nestled between a ramshackle range of Georgian and medieval dwellings, an increasingly decrepit Rectory and the looming mass of All Saints church itself. Something about this burial, however, was a little different…

Over the past three years, the trainees of York Archaeological Trust’s training excavation have been meticulously excavating and recording the complex archaeological sequence below the recently demolished All Saints Church Hall. Perhaps the most interesting discovery of the project has been a densely occupied but short-lived burial ground that covered much of the site between 1826 and 1854.

By July 2016, the  summer excavation season was well underway and site supervisor Arran was joined by a team of mainly familiar faces for the year’s third weekend excavation.

Excavation of infant burials by the former Rectory.

Excavation of infant burials by the former Rectory.

As in the previous two weeks of the summer dig, much of the team took up work on a difficult, intercutting sequence of infant burials close to the walls of the former Rectory. Theo, Michelle, Nicola and Paul had a tough task ahead of them as these burials have been found to lay stacked one above the other in no discernable pattern – a stark contrast to the neat rows seen elsewhere on site.

Theo carefully excavating a burial.

Theo carefully excavating a burial.

Theo’s burial was that of an infant that had been extensively damaged by the collapse of its coffin. Lifting away the loose grave backfill while not disturbing the remains took a great deal of patience, but following several years as a member of the Young Archaeologists’ Club, Theo is an assured hand with a trowel.  Nearby, Michelle made good progress within an adult burial, carefully excavating the material within the grave cut and exposing elements of a poorly preserved coffin stain.

Michelle working on an adult burial.

Michelle (second from right) working on an adult burial.

Up to this point, it was business as usual. The burials were laid in the same position, on the same alignment and in the same kind of coffin. Nicola and Paul’s burial, however, had a surprise in store.

Nicola and Paul using a planning frame to record their inhumation.

Nicola and Paul using a planning frame to record their inhumation.

Once the pair had fully exposed the remains of an infant and its coffin, they created a detailed record of the burial. With this process complete, the next task was to delicately lift the remains. As any development of the site will damage the more shallow graves, these infant burials are being recorded, lifted and re-buried in a safe location within the church.

As would be expected, this is not a quick process. Paul and Nicola cautiously lifted each bone and ran all of the excavated grave fill through a fine mesh sieve to ensure that 100% of the remains were recovered.

When the time came to lift the cranium, Nicola noticed something unusual in the soil beneath the right ear – not one, but two coins. This unexpected discovery immediately raised a number of questions.

It is unusual to find grave goods within 19th century Christian burials as this was not the prevailing custom of the time. While the gesture of placing a small gift of money with a deceased relative is only a relatively minor break from normal practice, the position of the coins by the skull is interesting. Could the coins have been placed over the eyes only to slip off when the coffin decayed and collapsed?

A pair of copper alloy coins found beneath the skull of an infant inhumation.

A pair of copper alloy coins found beneath the skull of an infant inhumation.

The practice of interring individuals with coins on their eyes or in their mouths goes back thousands of years and the act has waxed and waned in popularity over time. While we can’t say for certain exactly how the coins had been placed within the coffin, Nicola’s discovery means that a forgotten act of kindness has been recovered from the ground.

The 19th century was a true age of discovery. Alongside technological advancements that would spearhead the industrial revolution, the findings of the first antiquarians fired the imaginations of the British public. This revival of public interest in the distant past can be seen in changes in architecture, fashion and even burial practice. Were the family of this infant caught up in this new found fervour for archaeology, or are we seeing an echo of older folk traditions still being practiced in the 19th century? Of course, we can never know and maybe that isn’t the point.

Finds like these tell us more about the things that don’t make it into the ground; giving us new insight into funeral practices and even the thoughts and acts of those who were there to lay the infant to rest.

Closer inspection of the coins revealed a further sobering discovery. The gradual corrosion of the copper alloy had clearly limited the process of decay, allowing fragments of the infant’s shroud and even hair to survive in an unusual freak of preservation. With the date of the burial well understood, no further investigation of the coins has been carried out. Instead, the coins have been reunited with the remains of the child and re-buried in the safety and sanctity of the church.

This evocative burial is an excellent example of the huge amount that we can learn about the 19th century through the study of changing funerary traditions and also highlights the importance of keeping the ethics of what we do at the forefront of our thoughts. While the stories are fascinating, they are nonetheless the stories of real lives.

Excavating the floor of an 18th century workshop.

Excavating the floor of an 18th century workshop.

Elsewhere in the trench, Julie and Sharon investigated a sequence of deposits that were laid down in the decades before the site became a graveyard.

The first order of business was to excavate the remains of a cobbled floor surface that had been cut on all sides by later graves. This deposit had already been recorded back in 2014, meaning that Julie and Sharon could begin to lift the now moss-covered cobbles immediately.

The proliferation of grave cuts across the site has made it difficult to  piece together how this area would have looked prior to 1826, making these slithers of surviving structures highly important.

The cobbles had been laid tightly packed together, but aesthetics were clearly of little concern as the builders made use of fragments of masonry and brick in as well as cobbles. The surface was not laid solidly in a bed of mortar, instead, a thin layer of sandy silt was apparently deemed  to be sufficient.

This discovery reinforces the interpretation of these structures as roughly built workshops that were assembled cheaply and quickly.

As Julie and Sharon would discover, the upshot of this low quality build was that repairs and replacements to these floors must have been frequently required.

Julie and Michelle.

Julie and Sharon.

Once the tiles and their bedding material had been fully lifted, Julie and Sharon discovered a compacted layer of tile fragments laid in a thin bed of mortar  – an even earlier floor surface. Even at the turn of the 19th century, it seems that they didn’t build ’em like they used to!

Julie and Sharon recording their second floor surface.

Julie and Sharon recording their second floor surface.

At the opposite end of the trench, Beverley worked with Archaeology Live! placement Katie to delve even further back into the site’s long history. The pair revealed, cleaned up and recorded a layer of silt and ash that was deposited back in the fourteenth or even thirteenth century.

Beverley and Katie recording a slightly waterlogged medieval dump.

Beverley and Katie recording a slightly waterlogged medieval dump.

While there is no evidence of medieval structures occupying the site prior to the construction of the Rectory in the 14th century, our trainees have unearthed a growing number of pits, dumps and levelling deposits that are packed with domestic refuse. Study of this material will allow us to gain some insight into the lifestyle led by the medieval occupants of Church Lane.

'The Bradford Gang'

‘The Bradford Gang’

The July weekend saw the team unearth some unexpected and occasionally quite moving finds, finds that allow us a glimpse into the changing ways people have dealt with mortality and how the site has been put to use. The good weather (mainly) held and the team made it a lot of fun!

Theo looking resplendent in the afternoon sun.

Theo looking resplendent in the afternoon sun.

With a plot that continued to thicken and a full ten weeks of excavation still ahead of us, the summer was beginning to look very promising indeed. As always, everyone at Archaeology Live! would like to thank the trainees that made the July weekend possible, after all, they funded the work and carried out all of the excavation and recording! Good effort team!

The July weekend team.

The July weekend team.

There are lots more updates to follow so watch this space! Until then, onwards and downwards!

-Arran

 

Site Diary: Summer Week 2

Week two of the 2016 summer excavation saw much of the All Saints team continue to explore the funerary landscape of the early to mid-19th century, adding new knowledge to a complex picture of tradition and remembrance. While numerous burials were meticulously recorded, a small group of trainees investigated the site’s more distant past.

Not a bad day for digging!

Excavation of burials close to the walls of All Saints Rectory.

Across the majority of the site, adult and infant burials are laid out in rows that follow the alignment of the long axis of the church. The graves respect each other and there is only sparse evidence of graves intercutting, and no evidence of new burials knowingly damaging in-situ remains. This indicates that the graves must have been clearly marked and that care was clearly taken to avoid damaging existing burials.

By the north-eastern wall of the former Rectory, however, lies a notable concentration of infant burials that are laid out in no clear order, with many grave cuts overlapping with each other. This area makes for an intriguing break in an otherwise clear trend of burial tradition at All Saints.

Excavation of a cluster of infant burials.

Excavation of a cluster of infant burials.

Quite why this area of the graveyard is so disordered and densely occupied is open for debate, although it has been suggested that there is an affinity with burial at the tower end of a churchyard, as this then associates the interred with the most impressive aspect of the church.

The negative stigma attached to burial on the north side of churches was certainly in decline by the early 19th century, perhaps as much a result of pragmatism as opposed to anything more ideological. After all, people had to be buried somewhere and space was getting tight!

When the area was consecrated in 1826, the church will obviously not have known that York’s churchyards would all be closed in 1854. Could the idea have been to fill the space as much as possible, working out from the Rectory walls to the north-east? We can only speculate at present, as no church records have survived relating to the churchyard at this point.

Careful excavation of a double infant inhumation.

Careful excavation of a double infant inhumation.

This lack of historic context makes the meticulous work of our trainees very significant as it will be down to the archaeology alone to tell the story of this part of the site’s history. By carefully picking apart the sequence of burials in this area, we will be able to analyse and better understand the funerary practices of the time.

Rhiannon and Jenni (foreground) working on a double burial.

Rhiannon and Jenni (foreground) working on a double burial.

Jenni and Rhiannon spent their week exposing the remains of two infants  that had been extensively damaged by 19th century animal burrowing. This disturbance meant that parts of the skeletons had been moved or, in some cases, were missing altogether. Despite these difficulties, the pair were able to fully reveal and record the two individuals, finding evidence that they were buried simultaneously. Whether the two infants were siblings may never be known, but it is a distinct possibility.

Kaylan and Emily teamed up for their second week on site to finish lifting and recording an infant burial that had been started the previous week.

Kaylan, Katie and Emily collating the records for their burial.

Kaylan, Katie and Emily collating the records for their burial.

With this task completed, Kaylan and Emily recorded and began to excavate another grave backfill. Two infant burials had already been lifted from within this grave plot and it was suspected that an adult lied beneath. As it turned out, the adult was interred at a significant depth!

Kaylan and Emily reaching into a deep inhumation.

Kaylan and Emily reaching into a deep inhumation.

Emily and her star find.

Emily and her star find.

Confined spaces and deep features can make for uncomfortable digging positions but Kaylan and Emily’s patient work paid off and, by the end of the week, they had located the skull of a deeply buried adult.

A noteworthy find was a corroded ring made of copper alloy. Whether it was a decorative object or something more mundane will have to wait until the find is investigated by YAT’s Conservation Lab.

After recording and excavating an infant individual within the cluster of  burials by the Rectory, Italian archaeologists Federica and Elisa turned their attention to a deep feature close to the edge of the trench.

As the feature descended ever deeper, the pair became a little tough to spot…

They're down there somewhere!

They’re down there somewhere!

At first, the feature was believed to be another burial, albeit one of the later ones in the sequence. As Elisa and Federica slowly troweled away the material infilling the feature, however, disarticulated fragments of human bone began to appear. This was an unexpected development as we have had almost no evidence of burials disturbing earlier inhumations.

Federica and Elisa in their deep linear feature.

Federica and Elisa in their deep linear feature.

The feature’s proximity to the Church Hall wall that was built six years after the 1854 closure of York’s graveyards provided a clue as to what was happening.

The human remains that had been disturbed were originally buried as part of our 1826-1854 phase of burials, however, they were disturbed when the boundary wall separating the graveyard from Church Lane  was robbed out between 1854 and 1860.

Whoever dug out this trench to recover stone from the demolished boundary wall clearly paid no regard to the burials they were disturbing, simply throwing broken fragments back into the finished trench as it was backfilled.

As the churchyard had only been closed for a few years when this robbing event occurred, this is an unpleasant circumstance to consider and shows how values have changed since Victorian times.

Anna and India lifting an infant skeleton.

Anna and India exposing an infant skeleton.

Two further infant burials were investigated by Annie, India and Anna, yielding interesting new possibilities. Some burials appeared to overlie further inhumations within the same plot, whereas some seemed to be single interments.

Annie and Ellen recording an infant burial.

Annie and Ellen recording an infant burial.

 

Annie cleaning up a grave cut for photography.

Annie cleaning up a grave cut for photography.

Over the course of the week, four burials were exposed and recorded in this area, all by trainees with little or no prior archaeological experience. The quality of the records they produced and the careful, delicate excavation they carried out is to be commended.

Away from the Rectory area, Kate and Marie-Soleil continued work on a complicated sequence within a single grave plot.

Graves with a single occupant can be relatively easy to spot. After troweling an area clean, a rectangle of more mixed, often looser material will be revealed which can then be recorded and investigated. When grave plots are opened, backfilled and re-opened numerous times, these edges can become much less defined, as numerous overlapping cuts are now present in one space.

Kate and Marie-Soleil creating a plan drawing.

Kate and Marie-Soleil creating a plan drawing.

With some skilled troweling, Kate and Marie-Soleil were able to follow the suspected edge of the latest grave cut and made a surprising discovery – not one, but two coffins!  At the south-west end of the cut, the tiny coffin of an infant began to emerge, while the larger coffin of a juvenile individual occupied the north-eastern half of the grave.

Cleaning up a decayed coffin.

Cleaning up a decayed coffin.

After over 150 years in the ground, the majority of the organic materials of the coffins have long since decayed, although the presence of metal plates and fittings can slow this process. In some cases, a thin line of decayed wood and corroded iron and brass can still show us the size and shape of the coffins and Kate and Marie-Soleil’s larger coffin was particularly clear.

Marie-Soleil cleaning up the coffin of a juvenile individual.

Marie-Soleil cleaning up the coffin of a juvenile individual.

The infant burial was recorded and lifted first and proved to be heavily affected by animal burrowing, with much of the skull and torso missing. The larger coffin was then cleaned up for photography and recording.

The coffin of a juvenile interred between 1826 and 1854.

The timber coffin of a juvenile interred between 1826 and 1854.

By the end of the week, the burial was fully recorded and ready to be lifted in week 3. The juvenile was too young to suggest a gender, but a slight curvature in the femurs may suggest that the child had suffered from malnutrition in life. A sobering reminder of the often cruel realities of life in 19th century Britain.

Kate completing her coffin plan.

Kate completing her coffin plan.

While the week two team took great strides forward in our understanding of the 19th century burial ground, some of the team were also delving further back into the site’s past.

Hannah and Hope set to work in the centre of the trench.

Hannah and Hope set to work in the centre of the trench.

Newcastle University students Hannah and Hope proved that a huge amount of information can be derived from a very small amount of archaeology as they  started work on a thin peninsula of archaeology that was cut on two sides by a pair of later burials.

As well as pre-dating the burials of the early to mid-19th century, the sequence was also earlier than a stone and tile oven feature that once sat within an 18th century workshop.

The uppermost deposit was a compacted layer of silt and sand that overlaid a number of thin, laminated dumps of mortar and beaten earth – we were clearly looking at floor surfaces that had been laid and relaid numerous times.

It is common for rough surfaces such as these to be frequently replaced, as simple beaten earth horizons are prone to rapid wear. As Hannah and Hope recorded and lifted each subsequent deposit, one possible reason for the need to refresh the floors so frequently  became clear – subsidence.

Each layer of Hannah and Hope’s floor sequence proved to be far from flat and some tended to slope quite steeply downwards. The most likely reason for this is the presence of earlier pits below the workshop floors, with soft, organic fills that settle over time.

Hope cleaning a truncated pit cut prior to photography.

Hope cleaning a sloping surface prior to photography.

Clearly, the occupier of this workshop would have frequently found hollows appearing in the floor and would have been forced to deposit layers of soil, sand and mortar to provide a level working surface. Perhaps unsurprisingly, after excavating a number of such layers, Hannah and Hope came across a shallow pit – a possible culprit for the subsidence.

Further work may reveal a huge number of refuse and cess pits that pre-date both the 19th century burials and 18th century workshops. Quite why so many pits occupy this space will remain a mystery for now.

In the foreground, Bri begins work on a medieval levelling deposit.

In the foreground, Bri begins work on a medieval levelling deposit.

At the southern end of the trench, work also continued on the earliest sequence of deposits that have been encountered so far.

The southern boundary of the 19th century burial ground was the northern wall of All Saints Rectory, which stood until 1854-59.

Within the footprint of this building, there has been far less damage to the medieval and post-medieval horizon than elsewhere on-site, which gives us a far greater chance of understanding the site’s pre-18th century sequence.

This week, it was up to people taking part in our one and two day taster courses to further investigate this area and good progress was made. Following the excavation of a layer of silt dating to the 14th century, a more compacted layer was unearthed that may once have been a surface.

Taralea helping Alison and Helen create a new context record.

Taralea helping Alison and Helen create a new single context record.

This deposit proved to be very shallow and, by the end of the week, a small pit/post hole was found beneath it. Although our small slot into the medieval horizon was only getting started, interesting questions were already beginning to emerge.

  • Were we within the footprint of a building that pre-dates the 14th century Rectory?
  • Were we in an open yard space?
  • Was the area in industrial or domestic (or both!) use at this point?

As usual, each discovery brought with it new questions, but the team remained hopeful that we would be able to characterise this sequence of medieval archaeology.

Per and Janet recording a pit backfill.

Per and Janet recording a medieval pit backfill.

Beneath the Tree of Finds, the team continued to make inroads into tackling our ever growing mountain of finds and some previously unnoticed treasures emerged as countless tubs of finds were cleaned up.

Finds washing in the sun.

Finds washing in the sun.

The undoubted highlight was a fragment of medieval stained glass with paint still visible, a vivid reminder of the pomp and colour that would have characterised All Saints in its medieval heyday.

Medieval stained glass.

Medieval stained glass.

 

The team were excited to see the brushstrokes of a medieval artisan still surviving on the glass. While we’ll never know how the complete image would have looked, it remains a wonderful little find!

All told, week two of the summer excavation comfortably kept up the momentum of week one and the site changed visibly in a short space of time.

Massive thanks to all of the trainees and placements that made the week such a success!

The week two team.

The week two team.

Two weeks down, ten to go. Some questions answered, countless more posed. We had our work cut out for us!

A frequent sight at All Saints: Arran and Becky checking the week two records.

A frequent sight at All Saints: Arran and Becky checking the week two records.

Watch this space for more site diaries, onwards and downwards!

-Arran

 

PS. During week two, Arran and Becky became aware of a peril of asking younger placements to take a few working shots: The #ArchaeologySelfie

Ellen and Taralea in an #ArchaeologySelfie

Ellen and Taralea in an #ArchaeologySelfie

Site Diary: Summer Week 1

In the months leading up to our flagship summer excavation, bookings went through the roof. By the beginning of week one, 96% of the spaces in all 12 weeks of the dig were already booked up. All the signs suggested we were in for a hectic and eventful summer – they weren’t wrong! Here’s the first site diary from the 2016 summer dig at All Saints, North Street.

Guess who's back...

Guess who’s back…

The Archaeology Live! training excavations are the flagship public archaeology project of York Archaeological Trust. Each year, trainees from across the world converge on York to work on some of the most complex and fascinating archaeology that the UK has to offer, working all the while under the guidance of a crack team of full-time professional archaeologists.

The 2016 season at All Saints, North Street marked our third consecutive summer at this remarkable little site and the team were poised and ready to answer some of the myriad questions that have arisen around the site’s long and storied history.

Work begins on day one, week one of the summer excavation.

Work begins on day one, week one of the summer excavation.

It was something of a breathless start! In the months leading up to the summer season, the YAT fieldwork department had been kept very busy on a number of excavations across Yorkshire and the largest of these was still in full swing. This meant that regular All Saints supervisor Gary wasn’t available to take his usual post alongside Arran in running the All Saints dig. With Project Director Toby running the St Saviour’s excavation, new blood was clearly required.

Becky (left) in full recording mode.

Becky (left) in full recording mode.

Enter Becky!

Becky’s archaeological career began in 2010, when she took part in Archaeology Live! at Hungate. Since then, Becky has gained her degree in archaeology at Edinburgh and completed countless weeks as an Arch Live! placement. All of this culminated in Becky being taken on by YAT at the end of the 2015 season.

Now a fully fledged professional, Becky was back to help Arran with the running of the site.

Airdropped in from a large rural excavation, Arran and Becky gathered tools, prepared the site and welcomed the new team. The summer season was finally underway!

Emily and Simon working on an infant burial.

Emily and Simon working on an infant burial.

With a primary aim of the season being the identification of the remaining 19th century burials that are spread across the site, the majority of the team picked up work on a number of burials. Both Emily and Simon and Sue and Gill were given the delicate task of excavating and recording infant burials, making excellent headway over the course of the week.

Sue and Gill excavating an infant burial.

Sue and Gill excavating an infant burial.

Both burials turned out to house multiple occupants, presumably related individuals within a family plot. Emily and Simon’s inhumation proved to be in good condition and featured a well-preserved coffin. Sue and Gill’s burial was found directly below an infant that had been lifted during the spring excavation. This unusual burial was found interred with a coin in its left hand, an interesting throwback to an ancient tradition.

The underlying individual proved to be very challenging indeed, with the legs having partially collapsed into an underlying void. Untangling which remains belonged to which individual required some painstaking trowel work, something that Sue and Gill coped with admirably.

By the end of the week, both burials were fully recorded and had begun to be lifted. Due to the shallow depth and vulnerability to erosion of the infant burials, we had been requested by the church to carefully lift the infants and juveniles for re-burial in the safety and sanctity of the church.

Recording using a planning frame.

Recording using a planning frame.

In the centre of the trench, Sarah and Marie-Soleil began work on what was believed to be an adult burial, a task with unique challenges of its own. Careful trowel cleaning had revealed the outline of a rectangular feature that pre-dated a number of burials, the size of which suggested that a fully mature person would be interred within.

As the adults have tended to be buried at a greater depth than the infants, there is a far greater volume of grave backfill to excavate, but this doesn’t make it time to break out the mattock. On a site full of family grave plots, it is impossible to know whether or not infant or juvenile burials are stacked on top of the underlying adult. Marie-Soleil and Sarah had a lot of patient troweling to do!

Sarah and Marie-Soleil working on a burial

Sarah and Marie-Soleil working on a burial

Despite taking a fittingly measured approach, good progress was made and some interesting finds were soon unearthed. The value of sieving was proved by the discovery of this mysterious little object.

An ossified segment of a goose trachea.

An ossified segment of a goose trachea.

The soil conditions in York offer a remarkable level of preservation, allowing a delicate fragment of the trachea of a goose to survive in the ground. Credit also goes to the careful troweling and keen eyes of Marie-Soleil and Sarah! A second finds highlight was a fragment of a decorative 19th century clay pipe bowl. The fleur-de-lys decoration tells us that this pipe may well have been purchased from the Prince of Wales pub that traded on nearby Skeldergate in the 19th century.

Marie-Soleil and her clay pipe bowl.

Marie-Soleil and her clay pipe bowl.

A lead seal/token.

A lead seal/token.

The most exciting find to be recovered from the grave backfill was undoubtedly a circular lead seal or token.

These lead objects can have a variety of uses and forms. In the medieval period, there was a drive to enforce uniformity in the sale of textiles. Lead seals were often used as a method of authenticating the quality and provenance of cloth and were stamped in the same way as coins to produce imagery and text.

Papal bulla are lead seals used to authenticate documents, charters, indulgences, (etc. etc.) from the Catholic church. A number of these have been unearthed in York, sometimes with elaborate stamped imagery.

In the case of Marie-Soleil’s object, a layer of corrosion on the exterior means that we can’t currently say precisely which kind of object it is. This will be a job for our conservation department!

While the majority of the team spent the week working on burials, Arran and Becky had different plans for Kaylan and Sarah. The Anglo-American duo took over the excavation of our infamous (and seemingly bottomless!) ‘horn core pit’, an ever-deepening cut feature filled with the by-products of 18th century horn working.

Sarah and Kaylan tackling some tricky digging.

Sarah and Kaylan tackling some tricky digging.

It all began simply enough, with the expected bounty of cattle horn core and cranium fragments quickly appearing, but there was a surprise in store – an unexpected skull!

Excavation of deep features can require some creative positioning...

Excavation of deep features can require some creative positioning…

One of the real thrills of urban archaeology is that seemingly ironclad theories and interpretations can be destroyed almost as quickly as they are created. Up to this point, the sheer volume of horn core recovered from this feature had naturally led us to presuming that disposal of these waste products had been its primary function. Kaylan and Sarah’s discovery meant that we now knew that we were looking at a burial – but why the concentration of horn core?

Interpreting complex archaeological sequences is an artform in its own right and we encourage our trainees to really get to grips with their features. After a brief period of pondering, postulating and pontificating, Kaylan and Sarah realised that there was a simple explanation for the curious glut of horn core in this one particular burial – and it wasn’t some bizarre Mithraic ritual!

When considered in its context, the burial wasn’t really unusual at all, it just happened to have been placed in the exact location that an earlier horn working waste pit already existed. As the grave was dug out in the 19th century, the spoil, horn and all, was piled up at the side of the grave before being used to cover the newly interred coffin and backfill the hole.

So there we had it. Our horn core pit wasn’t actually a horn core pit after all, just a grave that happened to have disturbed and then re-deposited the backfill of a pre-existing pit.

Kaylan and Sarah planning their burial.

Kaylan and Sarah planning their burial.

This feature highlights the complexity of the archaeology at All Saints, with countless intercutting and overlapping features just waiting to be teased apart by our trainees. Breaking this palimpsest of archaeology down into a sequence is a wonderfully challenging process and, by the end of the week, Kaylan and Sarah had their newly reinterpreted burial fully recorded.

Becky explaining single context recording.

Becky explaining single context recording.

Elsewhere in the trench, Paula and Lisa spent a taster session working on some much older archaeology within the footprint of the former Rectory. Over the course of the 2015 season, this part of the trench had been taken from the 18th to the 14th century, and we were keen to go a little further back in time. To this end, a small area was set aside for a 2m x 1m sondage – a trench within a trench. The first thing to do was to clean the area up and identify the latest archaeological context in the sequence.

Paula and Lisa investigating the medieval horizon.

Paula and Lisa investigating the medieval horizon.

It didn’t take long to identify an amorphous spread of dark, silty material and, once it had been recorded, Lisa and Paula had time to excavate the deposit. A number of sherds of Roman pottery were unearthed, but the crucial finds were an assemblage of splash glazed and locally made green glazed wares. These allowed us to date the deposit to the 14th century, showing that a significant amount of deposition had occurred at this point – perhaps in response to repeated flooding or changing land use. Early signs were very promising for our new sondage!

Working out elevations.

Working out elevations.

Arran leading the stratigraphy session.

Arran leading the stratigraphy session.

 

As the week drew to a close, the summer season’s inaugural stratigraphy session was held beneath the Tree of Finds (or Stratigratree…).

The trainees came up with some surprisingly innovative suggestions and managed to put a sequence of 70 hypothetical contexts into a perfect Harris matrix.

Sarah and Becky

Sarah and Becky

After the long wait for the summer season to begin, the end of week one came about surprisingly quickly. We were up and running and had eleven more weeks to work on some wonderfully complex and unpredictable archaeology!

Taralea and Emily

Taralea and Emily

From unexpected skulls to mysterious lead seals, week one didn’t disappoint at all! The team did some fantastic work despite some difficult features and, perhaps most importantly, everyone had a lot of fun. The stage was set for a vintage year of Archaeology Live!

The week one team

The week one team

We always take the time to thank the team at this point, after all, none of this would happen without them! Cheers guys!

We’ll be adding more site diaries in the coming weeks and detailing the never-ending stream of finds and surprises that made this summer so exciting. Keep your eyes peeled for updates.

In the meantime, onwards and downwards!

-Arran

 

 

PS. Special mention should go to our placement Katie for her sheer enthusiasm in this session of levelling…

Katie

Adopt the position!!!

Site Diary: April & May Weekends

The 2016 digging season got off to a chilly but eventful start with a very successful two week spring excavation at All Saints, North Street. Thankfully, we wouldn’t have to wait until June to get back on site, as a pair of weekend digs kept the site ticking over nicely.

A brisk, bright start to the April 2016 weekend dig.

A brisk, bright start to the April 2016 weekend dig.

Redoubtable Archaeology Live! regulars Sue and Gill made a welcome return to All Saints for the weekend and took over the excavation of an intriguing but challenging burial. Over the spring excavation, it had become apparent that an existing burial had been re-opened to lay an infant to rest. This has been a recurring theme across the site, with numerous graves containing multiple individuals stacked one atop the other. As work progressed, it became clear that the additional burial had caused some damage to a second infant burial that was already present. With both infants already having been recorded and lifted, Sue and Gill’s first task was to reveal the remains of the third individual within the grave.

Sue and Gill recording a 19th century inhumation.

Sue and Gill recording a 19th century inhumation.

As has been the case in many such burials, this was not a straightforward process. Sue and Gill’s careful troweling slowly revealed the remains of an adult individual directly below the second infant, presumably the two were related as they were laid to rest on the same day between 1826 and 1854.

Sue and Gill continue work on their plans.

Sue and Gill (centre) continue work on their plans.

By the end of the weekend, the upper half of an adult had been fully exposed, with the lower half hidden below a wall footing of the 1860 church hall. Curiously, the left arm was never found as it had fallen into an underlying void from a collapsed coffin – clear evidence that the remains of at least one further individual are present below.

Gill enjoying the noble role of Staff Bearer.

Gill enjoying the noble role of Staff Bearer.

Intrusive later burials and collapse into earlier graves beneath their inhumation made this burial a tricky one for Gill and Sue, but they did an excellent job and created a full single context record of their coffin and skeleton before re-covering the remains with an appropriate amount of care and respect.

The April weekend dig was Keith’s first ever excavation and he too faced the challenging task of working on a 19th century inhumation. The knees of this adult individual had been exposed in a small slot dug between infant burials back in the 2015 season and the evidence seemed to suggest that the person had been buried face-down, an unusual occurrence.

With the overlying infant burials now lifted and re-interred within the church, Keith was able to reveal the entire burial and get to the bottom of this mystery.

After recording a well-preserved coffin, Keith began the delicate work of excavating within the coffin to reveal the skeleton. Despite being a beginner, he proved to be an assured troweller and discovered that the results of the previous slot had been misleading.

Revealing the whole of the inhumation proved that it had not been buried face down at all. It was now clear that, once the soft tissues of the individual had decayed, the femurs (thigh bones) were no longer held in place and had rolled over.

This suggests that the coffin had remained intact long enough for the individual within to become fully skeletal. As the coffin was yet to collapse and become filled with backfill, it was possible for the movement of the bones to take place – a curious piece of taphonomy (post-depositional change).

Planning a 19th century inhumation.

Keith planning a 19th century inhumation.

As well as being a natural troweller, Keith’s planning also proved to be immaculate!

Keiths immaculately drawn skeleton plan.

Keith’s beautifully drawn skeleton plan.

Elsewhere on site, Jan was also making his archaeological debut. His first feature was a tile, brick and stone hearth that we had begun to dismantle in the spring.

Jan excavating a stone and mortar footing.

Jan excavating a stone and mortar footing.

Built in the 18th century, the structure had long been thought to be a simple hearth within a post-medieval workshop, however, as Jan lifted the masonry around the edge of the feature, he discovered that the structure was built over a more substantial footing than had been anticipated.

This development suggested that a larger superstructure would have been present around the tile hearth base. The plot had thickened! We were now looking at something more akin to an oven as opposed to a simple fireplace.

When considered alongside contemporary pits filled with butchery waste, Jan’s discovery provides possible evidence for food processing in the decades before the site became a graveyard. A useful new piece to our puzzle.

Jenny and Kathryn spent their weekend investigating a deposit that was thought to pre-date the use of the graveyard. Following the creation of a detailed record, the pair picked up trowels and set to work.

Jenny and Kathryn excavating a dump deposit.

Jenny and Kathryn excavating a dump deposit.

The deposit yielded a huge range of ceramics, ranging from early 19th century in date, right back to the Roman period! The finds highlight was undoubtedly Jenny’s fragment of a Roman colour coat cup from the Nene Valley.

Jenny and her star find.

Jenny and her star find.

These fineware vessels were a cheaper alternative to expensive metal vessels and occur in huge quantity in Roman York. It seems our Roman predecessors were rather fond of fine wines! Finds like these provide wonderful insights into creature comforts from the dawn of the second millennium.

Tucked away at the very edge of the trench, Lyn and Chris carried on with the excavation of another 19th century burial. This required some surgical trowel work in cramped conditions, a task that this formidable duo were more than up to!

Lyn and Chris begin work on their burial.

Lyn and Chris (left) begin work on their burial.

As the weekend drew to a close, it was this feature that provided our final surprise. Lyn and Chris’ steady troweling had revealed an infant burial that seemed to lay directly over the top of an underlying juvenile. This made it quite the challenge to differentiate which remains related to which individual without great care.

Chris carefully planning an infant burial.

Chris carefully planning an infant burial.

While multiple burials within family plots has been a regular feature within the 19th century burial ground, we had found no evidence of any grave goods up to this point. As the deposition of objects within burials is not part of Christian burial custom, the lack of any grave goods thus far had been of little surprise.

Close to the end of the day, however,  Lyn and Chris noticed a green copper alloy object amongst the finger bones of their inhumation. Closer inspection revealed that the infant had been buried holding a coin in its left hand – a touching and highly evocative find.

As the corrosion of the coin had inhibited decay, fragments of fabric were still preserved on its surface, a remarkable quirk of preservation! Although it would be fascinating to investigate the coin further, it will stay with the remains of the infant and be re-buried within the church. The graves are tightly dated to between 1826 and 1854 and in this case there is need for any further research; it is far more important that the infant is re-interred in exactly the same way it had originally been laid to rest by its grieving parents.

Artefacts like these have the power to bring the past to life in a stark and often unsettling light, bringing us closer to the deeds and emotions of the people that lived through the times we study. Lyn and Chris’ discovery of this coin in a way allowed the team to act as very late guests to a funeral, witnessing a  simple human act of grief and kindness that never made its way into the history books. Working with human remains can be a privilege and our trainees at All Saints have shown an admirable level of care and respect at all times.

Arran sums up the latest discoveries.

Arran sums up the latest discoveries.

The weekend drew to a close with a wrap-up of our latest discoveries and a welcome trip to a nearby pub where the team could discuss their findings. The April weekend team achieved a remarkable amount in just two days, unearthing evidence of Roman luxuries and 19th century tragedy along the way. Now the site was left to rest, that is, until the May weekend team arrived…

The April weekend team.

The April weekend team.

With the May weekend falling on a Bank Holiday, we obviously expected rain. Happily, the day began with overcast but dry conditions. In the few weeks we’d been away, it was remarkable how many weeds had sprung up! The new team got their eye in by having a little tidy around the trench.

A slightly green trench...

A slightly green trench…

With the site looking a little cleaner, it was soon time for the team to tackle some new contexts. Sarah and Georgia set to work on a small dump of material that has survived in a gap between a pair of graves. The deposit seemed to be the uppermost in a sequence of broadly contemporary dumps and it took a little investigative troweling to spot where this dump ended and another began.

Cleaning a truncated dump deposit.

Cleaning a truncated dump deposit.

After a short while, Georgia and Sarah had defined the outline of their context and were then able to make a detailed record of the context prior to excavation.

Starting a new plan.

Starting a new plan.

Not far away, Gill and Julie were setting about a similar task, although the deposit they were investigating was suspected to overlie further 19th century burials.

Julie and Gill

Julie and Gill excavating a 19th century dump.

By the end of the weekend, both deposits had been thoroughly probed and several finds trays were now overflowing with finds. No new graves were uncovered, but our suspicions were still roused…

Investigating deposits cut by 19th century burials.

Investigating deposits cut by 19th century burials.

Dave and Tracey also spent a weekend investigating a slither of archaeology between two rows of graves. In a piece of archaeology no wider than 200mm, the pair discovered a number of dumps cut by a pit – all of which appeared to be a good deal older than our burials.

Excavating an 18th century deposit.

Excavating an 18th century deposit.

Datable finds began to emerge and Tracey and Dave were able to confirm that they had left the 19th century behind and discovered post-medieval archaeology. The sequence suggested that the space was likely to have been a yard in the late 1700s, with occasional pits and levelling dumps.

Recording a new layer.

Recording a new layer.

Traceys star Roman find.

Traceys star Roman find.

The finds highlight once again was an elegantly decorated fragment of a Roman Colour Coat cup, further evidence of Roman luxury at All Saints!

Theo and Stuart took over the excavation of an unusual feature that we started to excavate way back in 2014. Ominously dubbed ‘The Horn Core Pit’, the feature has already yielded thousands of fragments of cattle skull and horn core.

This is interesting evidence of the craft and industrial activity that was taking place around All Saints prior to the site becoming a graveyard in 1862. Horn core, the brittle, bony interior of a cow’s horn, is a by-product of the horn working industry. The sheer volume of waste deposited suggests that many a horn object will have been manufactured on Church Lane in the 18th century.

Theo and Stuart return to the 'horn core pit'

Theo and Stuart return to the ‘horn core pit’

True to form, the pit continued to produce a huge amount of horn working detritus, alongside an assemblage of late 18th and early 19th century ceramics. The only thing that Theo and Stuart failed to locate was the base of the feature; by the end of the weekend, it was still descending ever deeper. This one would need more work in the summer!

Stuart celebrates the discovery of yet another fragment of horn core...

Stuart celebrates the discovery of yet another fragment of horn core…

In just two days, the May weekend team found (and cleaned) hundreds of new finds. New detail was unearthed regarding the little understood post-medieval and Georgian history of the site and it didn’t even rain!

Keeping on top of Finds Mountain

Keeping on top of Finds Mountain

With the weekend wrapped up, the team retreated to the cosy confines of the pub to reflect on a job well done. The site was now primed and ready for a full 12 weeks of archaeology, but that’s another story…

Thanks to all of the spring weekend(s) team for their excellent company and excavation work.

The May weekend team

(Most of) the May weekend team

In the coming posts, I’ll endeavour to tell the tale of the summer 2016 excavation. It was a hectic season of exciting and often unexpected discoveries, watch this space for updates…

Onwards and downwards!

-Arran

Site Diary: Week 11

Autumnal clouds looming over All Saints.

Autumnal clouds looming over All Saints.

Week 11 of the summer excavation arrived with an unfamiliar chill in the air. The breeze now carried with it a scattering of fallen leaves and lengthening shadows now stretched across the trench.  Autumn was almost upon us, as was the end of the 2015 season. With just two weeks to go, there were still so many questions to answer and the team couldn’t wait to get started!

Unfortunately, the weather had got a little carried away with the autumnal theme…

Becky, Katie and a LOT of paperwork!

Becky, Katie and a LOT of paperwork!

As the rain poured outside, the team wisely decided to focus on indoor tasks in the warmth and shelter of the church. Sessions on recording methodologies, pottery dating and finds sorting were held while the placements took the opportunity to check a small mountain of records.

Thankfully, Tuesday saw the sunshine make a welcome return and the team sprung to action in the trench.

The sun returns to Church Lane, well, some of it.

The sun returns to Church Lane, well, some of it.

Rosemin and Joanna took over work on an area suspected to have been a processional route into the graveyard that occupied the site between 1826 and 1854.  It didn’t take long for the duo to find their first feature, as they spotted the outline of a post hole.

Rosemin and Joanna investigating a 19th century deposit.

Rosemin and Joanna investigating a 19th century deposit.

Over the previous two weeks, Arran’s ‘That End’ team had been working hard to prove or disprove whether this route into the graveyard had existed. If the theory was correct, we would find no burials in this space and archaeology that pre-dates the 19th century would survive. If the theory was false, then Rosemin and Joanna would discover yet more burials.

The first step in solving the mystery was to excavate the post hole and retrieve some dating material. In doing so, it didn’t take long for the week’s first exciting find to appear – a beautiful sherd of decorated Samian ware.

Jo and her freshly unearthed Roman pot sherd.

Jo and her freshly unearthed Roman pot sherd.

The post hole proved to be fairly substantial, and contained an eclectic mix of ceramics that ranged from Roman to medieval in date.

The omens were good, but could this be a genuine medieval feature or were we being mis-led? After all, it is still possible to find 19th century features that contain no 19th century finds. To definitively prove our theory, we would have to investigate the deposit underlying the post hole.

With the post hole recorded, Joanna and Rosemin began to clean up their area to see what deposit or feature was the next in line to investigate. This proved to be tricky work as the area was a mass of varied colours and textures with no clear cut features.

Joanna and Rosemin - Josemin

Joanna and Rosemin – Josemin

By the end of the week, a number of possible features had been uncovered and, crucially, no grave cuts had as yet become apparent. Our mystery, however, remained firmly unsolved as the mixed material being revealed by Jo and Rosemin still contained early 19th century ceramics – this one was going to go right to the wire!

Edges of uncertain date beginning to emerge.

Edges of uncertain date beginning to emerge.

Over in ‘This End’, Sarah and Stuart had made a brisk start and exposed the outline of a juvenile burial. After recording the grave backfill, they began the delicate process of exposing the remains of the coffin.

Stuart, Sarah and Becky investigating a 19th century infant burial.

Stuart, Sarah and Becky investigating a 19th century infant burial.

Sarah and Stuart’s diligent work was soon rewarded with an enigmatic find – a neatly cut but undecorated lead seal.

Sarah and her lead seal.

Sarah and her lead seal.

As the week progressed, the faint outline of a tiny timber coffin began to appear. This was clearly the burial of a very young individual, perhaps only one or two years old when they died.

Infant and juvenile burials have formed a large proportion of the site’s 60-plus inhumations. This is interesting as the area was not a particularly poor place in the 19th century, indeed all of the burials were furnished with coffins complete with at least some degree of decoration. Clearly, class was no barrier to the very real trials and hardships of the 19th century and high infant mortality affected people of all walks of life.

Excavating a 19th century infant burial.

Excavating a 19th century infant burial.

The remains of the infant within the coffin did indeed show evidence of these hardships, visible in a distinct curvature of both femurs (thigh bones) that can be a clear indicator of malnutrition.

Sarah finishing up her burial records.

Sarah finishing up her burial records.

Excavating features such as these can be a very touching experience, as in doing so we bear witness to the more tragic moments in the lives of York’s 19th century inhabitants. Through archaeology we can glimpse an unfiltered picture of life and, indeed, death in the past and create a permanent record of these forgotten stories.

Over in That End, Alistair was finding more evidence of the tough realities of life in the 19th century.

Hugh, Alistair and Katie recording a burial.

Hugh, Alistair and Katie recording a burial.

 Alistair’s first task of the week was to record the burial of a 19th century adolescent, yet another individual that didn’t survive to adulthood.
With this task completed, Alistair took to the excavation of the neighbouring grave, which proved to be quite remarkable!
Hugh (left) and Alistair (right) working on 19th century burials.

Hugh (left) and Alistair (right) working on 19th century burials.

As Alistair carefully excavated the backfill of the grave, he located and recorded a coffin that is quite typical for the site, a tapered timber hexagon with decorative brass panels.

Timber coffins almost never survive intact, as bacteria in the soil slowly breaks down the wood and eventually causes the collapse of the coffin. At All Saints, we have been able to identify the outlines of these collapsed coffins as the decayed wood can be seen as a dark stain in the soil. Where metal fittings are present, it is common to find fragments of wood still in-situ as the corroding metal can slow the process of decay around it.

Alistair excavating a 19th century burial cut through an 18th century cobbled floor.

Alistair excavating a 19th century burial cut through an 18th century cobbled floor.

With the coffin fully exposed and recorded, Alistair began to expose the remains of the individual within and made a remarkable discovery.

The person buried within the coffin died at around six or seven years of age and clearly lived a difficult life. Close inspection of the remains revealed clear ridges running horizontally across the teeth, an indication that the child had suffered from dental enamel hypoplasia. This condition can manifest itself in teeth and bone and is the result of severe illness and/or malnutrition. Once again we had found evidence of a tough life cut tragically short, but there was still more to learn.

Skeletons of such young individuals are yet to develop the typical traits that help us to identify whether they were male or female, but a quirk of preservation in Alistair’s burial allowed us to hazard a guess. When the coffin gave way and collapsed onto the remains within, part of a decorative metal plate landed directly over the child’s forehead. As a result of its proximity to this corroding metalwork, some of the child’s hair was found to be perfectly preserved.

This was a unique discovery for this excavation, allowing us to see that the child had had short blonde hair. This discovery could suggest that the individual would have been male, as cropped short hair certainly wasn’t the norm for young girls in the 19th century. Another intriguing possibility is that the hair may have been cropped short following a fever, a tradition which was thought to bring down temperatures.

Once again, a new discovery has brought with it yet more questions, however, Alistair’s careful excavation has given us an unprecedented amount of information about a short and difficult life. As the discovery was made, the mood in the trench became understandably sombre, however, it is finds such as these that help to put skeletal remains in a very human context.

Looking north along Church Lane.

Looking north-east along Church Lane.

Elsewhere in That End, Hugh and Abi were also working on 19th century burials. Abi had spent the previous week establishing the true edge of her grave cut and following the outline of one side of a coffin. Finding the other side of the coffin was, however, proving rather tricky!

Abi searching for the northern side of her coffin.

Abi searching for the northern side of her coffin.

A combination of variable preservation and the burrowing of a 19th century rabbit was making this already delicate task more difficult than usual.

Abi’s patience, however, was thankfully rewarded by an interesting find, a well-preserved fragment of a glazed medieval tile that would have been part of the church floor centuries ago.

Abi and her medieval glazed floor tile.

Abi and her medieval glazed floor tile.

Like Alistair, Hugh made some very unexpected discoveries within his burial. The grave cut was situated close to a pair of structural features that were thought to pre-date the grave; a mortared stone footing and a feature made of medieval brick. As excavation progressed, it became apparent that the brickwork was not a medieval feature after all – it was built within the cut of the burial!

Hugh (below the YAT banner) working on his burial.

Hugh (below the YAT banner) working on his burial.

While some burials have featured post holes at the head end that may have supported a cross, Hugh’s discovery is the first surviving example of a substantial 19th century grave marker that has been found at All Saints.

Hugh exposing a 19th century brick and stone grave marker.

Hugh exposing a 19th century brick and stone grave marker.

Once fully exposed, the brickwork proved to be un-mortared and built over a block of limestone. The structure made use of recycled medieval brick and gave us evidence that the individual who built it wasn’t the most diligent undertaker. Bizarrely, the grave marker had been built directly over the top of the coffin and when this eventually collapsed, the whole structure appears to have collapsed with it, sinking deeper into the grave and crushing the skull of the individual buried within.

The fact that none of our 19th century burials have been found to intercut suggests that the burials were clearly marked above ground. Hugh’s unusual sequence allows us to see what kind of monuments were in place and shows us that some 19th century individuals may not have taken a great deal of pride in their work!

As well as 19th century burials, week 11 also saw the excavation of some much earlier features.

Sarah, Julie, Elizabeth

Sarah, Julie, Elizabeth and Dave clearly enjoying their sieving!

Julie and Elizabeth spent a two day taster session working on medieval deposits in the south-west corner of the trench. The sequence was a complex one, with an interweaving mass of dumps and pits occupying a space that was later built over by the medieval Rectory.

Julie and Elizabeth planning a medieval pit backfill.

Julie and Elizabeth planning a medieval pit backfill.

Records suggest that the church acquired the land in the 14th century, and the ceramics from Julie and Elizabeth’s deposit comfortably pre-date this. In fact, the majority of the pottery was Anglo-Norman in date (11th-12th century) and were typified by the coarse gritty wares of the period.

The interior of a Norman gritty ware cooking pot.

The interior of a Norman gritty ware cooking pot.

These coarse, hard-wearing vessels were almost always cooking pots or storage jars. Many exhibit clear charring on the exterior and would have been used to cook countless meals almost a millennium ago.

The fire-blackened exterior face of the same sherd.

The fire-blackened exterior face of the same sherd. Clear grooves of the potter’s fingers can also be seen in the fabric.

Karen and Phillip, also joining us for a two day taster, picked up work on an area they had investigated in the spring excavation. In a spur of later medieval dumping that survives between two 19th century graves, the pair found a huge range of ceramics and domestic waste.

Karen and Phillip digging in the autumn sunshine.

Karen and Phillip digging in the autumn sunshine.

The frequent occurrence of Roman pottery mixed in with animal bone and medieval ceramics suggests that the deposit was laid down as a levelling event, raising and flattening the ground level.

Clearly, a combination of primary domestic dumping and material excavated from nearby pits was utilised, which explains why so much upcast Roman material was present.

Karen and Phillip.

Karen and Phillip sieving their medieval levelling layer.

Stuart, who took part in YAT’s community excavations on the site of York’s forthcoming Community Stadium, spent two days working on a tiny island of medieval archaeology that had survived between a 19th century concrete footing and a later medieval post hole.

Stuart exposing a medieval feature.

Stuart exposing a layer of charcoal beneath a pair of stones.

Despite the massive amount of later intrusions, Stuart was able to identify and record a number of contexts including a dump rich in charcoal. The post hole that cuts the deposits is thought to have been part of the original medieval Rectory, therefore Stuart’s sequence must relate to activity pre-dating the church’s acquisition of the land.

Several metres away Anne, Eileen and Denis spent their week working on similar material, discovering a laminated sequence of ashy medieval deposits that also pre-date the Rectory.

Anne working on a sequence of medieval deposits.

Anne working on a sequence of medieval deposits.

A small post hole was found cutting through theses laminated deposits, complete with a pad of stone at the base of the cut.

Denis and Anne's medieval post hole.

Denis and Anne’s medieval post hole.

Finds were not plentiful from this sequence as disposal of material from hearth clearance appears to have been the main activity taking place at this point. Anne was, however, lucky enough to discover a fragment of a very large medieval jug.

Anne and her medieval pot sherd.

Anne and her medieval pot sherd.

Week 11 also saw Toby and the finds team continuing to clean up some fascinating finds, the most enigmatic being this unusual object.

One ring to rule them all...

One ring to rule them all…

This tiny bone object is actually the ossified trachea of a goose which, unsurprisingly, wasn’t the first guess of any of the trainees!

A small copper alloy object was recovered from a 19th century context and may have been part of a decorative medieval(?) strap end.

A tiny copper alloy fitting.

A tiny copper alloy fitting.

All too quickly, 5pm on Friday was upon us and the team’s thoughts naturally began to turn pubwards.

Week 11 saw us make some particularly solemn discoveries, with the infant burials making for a very emotive insight into the welfare of the 19th century parishioners of All Saints, North Street. Each discovery we make brings us closer to our goal of understanding how life on the site has changed over the centuries for the people who lived and worked here and how the area has developed and changed.

Recording in progress.

Recording in progress.

With more burials discovered and recorded and excellent progress being made on our medieval features, the week proved to be a huge success. Thanks to all of the trainees and placements for their hard work, especially in the changeable autumn weather!

The week eleven team.

The week eleven team in formation.

With week 11 in the bag, we were about to enter the final week of the summer. As ever, there were a few surprises in store for us yet. There’s never a dull moment on North Street!

Almost there then, onwards and downwards!

– Arran

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